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ARTICHOKE LEAF EXTRACT



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Antioxidative and protective properties of extracts from leaves of the artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) against hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat hepatocytes

Gebhardt R Physiologisch-Chemisches Institut, University of Tubingen, Germany. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1997 Jun;144(2):279-86

Primary rat hepatocyte cultures exposed to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) or cumene hydroperoxide were used to assess the antioxidative and protective potential of water-soluble extracts of artichoke leaves. Both hydroperoxides stimulated the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), particularly when the cells were pretreated with diethylmaleate (DEM) in order to diminish the level of cellular glutathione (GSH). Addition of artichoke extracts did not affect basal MDA production, but prevented the hydroperoxide-induced increase of MDA formation in a concentration-dependent manner when presented simultaneously or prior to the peroxides. The effective concentrations (down to 0.001 mg/ml) were well below the cytotoxic levels of the extracts which started above 1 mg/ml. The protective potential assessed by the LDH leakage assay and the MTT assay closely paralleled the reduction in MDA production and largely prevented hepatocyte necrosis induced by the hydroperoxides. The artichoke extracts did not affect the cellular level of glutathione (GSH), but diminished the loss of total GSH and the cellular leakage of GSSG resulting from exposure to t-BHP. Chlorogenic acid and cynarin accounted for only part of the antioxidative principle of the extracts which was resistant against tryptic digestion, boiling, acidification, and other treatments, but was slightly sensitive to alkalinization. These results demonstrate that artichoke extracts have a marked antioxidative and protective potential. Primary hepatocyte cultures seem suitable for identifying the constituents responsible for these effects and for elucidating their possible mode of action.



Dicaffeoylquinic acids and HIV

Dicaffeoylquinic acid inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus integrase: inhibition of the core catalytic domain of human immunodeficiency virus integrase

Robinson WE Jr, Cordeiro M, Abdel-Malek S, Jia Q, Chow SA, Reinecke MG, Mitchell WM
Department of Pathology, University of California, Irvine 92697-4800, USA.
ewrobine@uci.edu
Mol Pharmacol 1996 Oct;50(4):846-55

Integration of a cDNA copy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome is mediated by an HIV-1-encoded enzyme, integrase (IN), and is required for productive infection of CD4+ lymphocytes. It had been shown that 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and two analogues were potent and selective inhibitors of HIV-1 IN in vitro. To determine whether the inhibition of IN by dicaffeoylquinic acids was limited to the 3,5 substitution, 3,4-, 4,5-, and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids were tested for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in tissue culture and inhibition of HIV-1 IN in vitro. All of the dicaffeoylquinic acids were found to inhibit HIV-1 replication at concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 microM in T cell lines, whereas their toxic concentrations in the same cell lines were>120 microM. In addition, the compounds inhibited HIV-1 IN in vitro at submicromolar concentrations. Molecular modeling of these ligands with the core catalytic domain of IN indicated an energetically favorable reaction, with the most potent inhibitors filling a groove within the predicted catalytic site of IN. The calculated change in internal free energy of the ligand/IN complex correlated with the ability of the compounds to inhibit HIV-1 IN in vitro. These results indicate that the dicaffeoylquinic acids as a class are potent and selective inhibitors of HIV-1 IN and form important lead comounds for HIV drug discovery.



Chlorogenic acid inhibits carcinogenic reactions

The suppression of the N-nitrosating reaction by chlorogenic acid

N-Nitrosation of a model aromatic amine (2,3-diamino-naphthalene) by the N-nitrosating agent produced by nitrite in acidic solution was inhibited by a polyphenol, chlorogenic acid, which is an ester of caffeic acid quinic acid. Caffeic acid also inhibited the N-nitrosation, but quinic acid did not. 1,2-Benzenediols and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid had inhibitory activities. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, 1,2-benzenediols and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were able to scavenge the stable free radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Chlorogenic acid was found to be nitrated by acidic nitrite. The kinetic studies and the nitration observed only by bubbling of nitric oxide plus nitrogen dioxide gases indicated that the nitrating agent was nitrogen sesquioxide. The observations showed that the mechanism by which chlorogenic acid inhibited N-nitrosation of 2,3-diamino-naphthalene is due to its ability to scavenge the nitrosating agent, nitrogen sesquioxide. Chlorogenic acid may be effective not only in protecting against oxidative damage but also in inhibiting potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic reactions in vivo.