On the pharmacology of bromelain: an update with special regard to animal studies on dose-dependent effects.
Planta Med (GERMANY, WEST) Jun 1990, 56 (3) p249-53
Bromelain, a standardized complex of proteases from the pineapple plant, is absorbed unchanged from the intestine of animals at a rate of 40%; in animal experiments it was found to have primarily anti-edema, antiinflammatory, and coagulation-inhibiting effects. These effects are due to an enhancement of the serum fibrinolytic activity and inhibition of the fibrinogen synthesis, as well as a direct degradation of fibrin and fibrinogen. Bromelain lowers kininogen and bradykinin serum and tissue levels and has an influence on prostaglandin synthesis, thus acting antiinflammatory. In in vitro and in animal studies, experimentally induced tumours could be inhibited by . Although many studies do not give extensive statistical data, the effects of bromelain in animal studies seem to be dose-dependent. Further investigations have to be carried out.
Phospholipid epitopes for mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes.
Immunology (ENGLAND) Sep 1987, 62 (1) p11-6
The reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC) with phospholipid epitopes was assessed by ELISA, using four clones of monoclonal anti-BrMRBC antibodies that had idiotypes distinct from one another. The four antibodies could bind to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) from human and chicken, but not to LDL from mouse and rat. As to liposomes of natural phospholipids, all the clones reacted with liposomes of phosphatidylcholine, and some of them could react with liposomes of sphingomyelin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylic acid or cardiolipin. For liposomes of synthetic phosphatidylcholine with different fatty acids, the length of carbon chains and the number of unsaturated carbon chains of the fatty acids markedly affected the binding of each monoclonal antibody to the liposomes. The addition of dicetyl phosphate or stearylamine to phosphatidylcholine liposomes changed the reactivity of the liposomes. These results support the view that mouse anti-BrMRBC antibodies can recognize appropriately spaced phosphorylcholine residues on the surface of phospholipid liposomes, LDL and cells. The four clones had similar capacities for binding to LDL as well as to BrMRBC, but they had obviously different capacities for binding to phospholipid liposomes; the epitopes on phospholipid liposomes used in the present study were not so perfect as to react well with every anti-BrMRBC antibody.