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Table of Contents


image Dietary pectin influences fibrin network structure in hypercholesterolaemic subjects
image Intestinal immunocompetency and/or cancer control
image Inhibitory effect of apple pectin and culture condensate of Bifidobacterium longum on colorectal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in transgenic mice harboring human prototype c-Ha-ras genes.
image [Dietary fiber inhibits the incidence of hepatic metastasis with the anti-oxidant activity and portal scavenging functions].
image Anticarcinogenic action of apple pectin on fecal enzyme activities and mucosal or portal prostaglandin E2 levels in experimental rat colon carcinogenesis.
image Effects of apple pectin on fecal bacterial enzymes in azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.
image Carcinogen binding to various types of dietary fiber.
image Effect of dietary alfalfa, pectin, and wheat bran on azoxymethane-or methylnitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats.

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Dietary pectin influences fibrin network structure in hypercholesterolaemic subjects

Thrombosis Research (United Kingdom), 1997, 86/3 (183-196)

Fibrinogen is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, stroke and cardiovascular heart disease (CHD). This risk is increased when associated with a high serum cholesterol. Furthermore, it is also believed that not only fibrinogen concentration, but also the quality of fibrin networks may be an important risk factor for the development of CHD. CHD and stroke as a result of atherosclerosis, plus the related problems of hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension are strongly related to diet. The 'western' diet, defined by low fibre and high fat, sucrose and animal protein intakes, appears to be a major factor leading to death. It has been established that the water-soluble dietary fibre, pectin, significantly decrease the concentration of serum cholesterol levels. Evidence is also accumulating that a diet rich in fibre may protect against diseases associated with raised clotting factors. This investigation studied the possible effects of pectin on fibrinogen levels and fibrin network architecture. Two groups of 10 male hyperlipidaemic volunteers each, received a pectin supplement (15g/day) or placebo (15g/day) for 3 weeks. Lipid and fibrin network structure variables were measured at baseline and the end of supplementation. Pectin supplementation caused significant decreases in total cholesterol, low-density lind lipoprotein (a). Significant changes in the characteristics of fibrin networks developed in the plasma of the pectin supplemented group indicated that networks were more permeable and had lower tensile strength. These network structures are believed to be less atherogenic. It is suspected that pectin modified network characteristics by a combination of its effects on metabolism and altered fibrin conversion. This confirms the therapeutic possibilities of dietary intervention. Furthermore, this study also showed that changes in plasma fibrinogen need not be present to induce alterations in fibrin network architecture.


Intestinal immunocompetency and/or cancer control

Biotherapy (Japan), 1997, 11/4 (524-525)

The conditions and diseases that have become more prevalent are almost wholly of environmental origin. The most plausible contributory factor is diet. In diet, calorie intake has increased, total intake of protein has risen, and more animal but less vegetable protein is consumed. Dietary fiber is described as the proportion of plant foods not digested in the human small intestine. For the purpose of practical classification, dietary fiber is divided into 'water soluble' and 'water insoluble' types. The soluble fibers (pectins and gums) slow glucose absorption, and reduce serum cholesterol. Insoluble fibers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) decrease intestinal transit time and increase fecal bulk, thus preventing colon cancer. Among the various kinds of pectin, apple pectin exerts a bacteriostatic action and therefore may change the composition of the intestinal flora. The diet supplemented with 20% apple pectin significantly decreased the number and the incidence of AOM-induced colon tumors in rats. Fecal beta-glucuronidase activity was significantly lower in the group fed pectin. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the distal colonic mucosa and blood of portal vein was lower in rats fed 20% pectin than those fed the basal diet. The ability of apple pectin to decrease PGE2 was dose-dependent, and those results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect in the bowel. Rats fed apple pectin showed a significantly lower incidence of hepatic metastasis than those fed the basal diet. To determine whether the anti-inflammatory effect of Lactobacillus on the hepatic metastasis model was the same as apple pectin, Lactobacillus casei was selected. Metastatic nodules were significantly reduced, especially in the group receiving pretreatment. The suppression of colonic carcinogenesis in AOM induced colon tumors in rats was evident with three kinds of living bacterial mixture (S. faecalis, B. mesentericus, C. butyricum). In conclusion, apple pectin has a scavenger effect in the intestinal digestion and portal circulation system as an anti-inflammatory food. Dietary fibers like pectin, and Lactobacillus have a very important function in the intestinal tract as anti-inflammatory foods.

Modified citrus pectin-monograph.

Altern Med Rev 2000 Dec;5(6):573-5

Modified citrus pectin (MCP), also known as fractionated pectin, is a complex polysaccharide obtained from the peel and pulp of citrus fruits. Modified citrus pectin is rich in galactoside residues, giving it an affinity for certain types of cancer cells. Metastasis is one of the most life-threatening aspects of cancer and the lack of effective anti-metastatic therapies has prompted research on MCP's effectiveness in blocking metastasis of certain types of cancers, including melanomas, prostate, and breast cancers.

Effects of daily oral administration of quercetin chalcone and modified citrus pectin.

Altern Med Rev 2000 Dec;5(6):546-52
Hayashi A, Gillen AC, Lott JR Central Florida Community College, P.O. Box 1388, Ocala, FL 34478, USA.
hayashia@cfcc.cc.fl.us

The health benefits of fruits and vegetables have been the subject of numerous investigations over many years. Two natural substances, quercetin (a flavonoid) and citrus pectin (a polysaccharide found in the cell wall of plants) are of particular interest to cancer researchers. Two modified versions of these substances - quercetin chalcone (QC) and a pH-modified citrus pectin (MCP) - are the focus of this study. Previous research has confirmed that quercetin exhibits antitumor properties, likely due to immune stimulation, free radical scavenging, alteration of the mitotic cycle in tumor cells, gene expression modification, anti-angiogenesis activity, or apoptosis induction, or a combination of these effects. MCP has inhibited metastases in animal studies of prostate cancer and melanoma. To date, no study has demonstrated a reduction in solid tumor growth with MCP, and there is no research into the antitumor effect of QC. This study examines the effects of MCP and QC on the size and weight of colon-25 tumors implanted in balb-c mice. Fifty mice were orally administered either 1 ml distilled water (controls), low-dose QC (0.8 mg/ml), high-dose QC (1.6 mg/ml), low-dose MCP (0. 8 mg/ml) or high-dose MCP (1.6 mg/ml) on a daily basis, beginning the first day of tumor palpation (usually eight days post-implantation). A significant reduction in tumor size was noted at day 20 in all groups compared to controls. The groups given low-dose QC and MCP had a 29-percent (NS) and 38-percent (p<0.02) decrease in size, respectively. The high-dose groups had an even more impressive reduction in size; 65 percent in the QC group and 70 percent in the mice given MCP (both p<0.001). This is the first evidence that MCP can reduce the growth of solid primary tumors, and the first research showing QC has antitumor activity. Additional research on these substances and their effect on human cancers is warranted.

Inhibitory effect of apple pectin and culture condensate of Bifidobacterium longum on colorectal tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in transgenic mice
harboring human prototype c-Ha-ras genes.

Ohno K, Narushima S, Takeuchi S, Itoh K, Mitsuoka T, Nakayama H, Itoh T, Hioki K, Nomura T Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

Exp Anim 2000 Oct;49(4):305-7
The number and tumor score of colorectal tumors induced by 1,2-dymethylhydrazine in transgenic (Tg) mice carrying human c-Ha-ras genes were significantly reduced by ingestion of apple pectin (AP) or a culture condensate of Bifidobacterium longum (MB) when compared with a control diet. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of colorectal tumors in Tg mice between the AP or MB diet and the control diet. This study demonstrated that Tg mice are a useful tool for screening inhibition of colorectal tumors by functional foods.

[Dietary fiber inhibits the incidence of hepatic metastasis with the anti-oxidant activity and portal scavenging functions].
[Article in Japanese]

Tazawa K, Yatuzuka K, Yatuzuka M, Koike J, Ohkami H, Saito T, Ohnishi Y, Saito M Department of Adult Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama Medical & Pharmaceutical University.

Hum Cell 1999 Dec;12(4):189-96
Dietary fiber is described as the proportion of plant foods not digested in the human small intestine. Among the various kinds of pectin, apple pectin exerts a bacteriostatic action and therefore may change the composition of the intestinal flora. The diet supplemented with 20% apple pectin significantly decreased the number and the incidence of AOM-induced colon tumors in rats. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the distal colonic mucosa and blood of portal vein was lower in rats fed 20% pectin than those fed the basal diet. The ability of apple pectin to decrease PGE2 was dose-dependent and those results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect in the bowel. Rats fed apple pectin showed a significantly lower incidence of hepatic metastasis than those fed the basal diet. To determine whether the anti-inflammatory effect of Lactobacillus on hepatic metastasis model same as apple pectin, Lactobacillus casei was selected. Metastatic nodules were significantly reduced, especially in the group receiving pretreatment. Apple pectic oligosaccharides with small molecular weights showed highly inhibitory effects on hypoxanthin-xanthin oxidase and ferrous sulfate-hydrogen peroxide. The scavenging activity of apple pectic oligosaccharides was suitable and accelerated at high temperatures (120 degrees C, 30 min.). Apple pectin and Lactobacillus have a scavenger effect in the intestinal digestion and portal circulation system as an anti-inflammatory food and have very important function for the prevention of hepatic metastasis.

Anticarcinogenic action of apple pectin on fecal enzyme activities and mucosal or portal prostaglandin E2 levels in experimental rat colon carcinogenesis.

Tazawa K, Okami H, Yamashita I, Ohnishi Y, Kobashi K, Fujimaki M School of Nursing, 2nd Dept. of Surgery, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama-city, Japan.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 1997 Mar;16(1):33-8
Pectin is a partially methoxylated polymer of galacturonic acid obtained from fruits. Among pectin, apple pectin exerts stronger bacteriostatical action on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli in comparison with citrus pectin. In this study, we used water-soluble methoxylated pectin from apple. The diet, supplemented by 20% apple pectin, significantly decreased the number of tumors and the incidence of colon tumor. PGE2 level in distal colonic mucosa in 20% apple pectin fed rats were lower than those in basal diet fed rats. Fecal beta-glucuronidase activities in the apple pectin fed group, which has been considered a key enzyme for the final activation of Dimethylhydrazine metabolism to carcinogens in the colonic lumen, were signifieantly lower than those in control group at initiation stage of carcinogenesis. In the case the concentrations of beta-glueosidase and azoreductase were also decreased. The effect of apple pectin on the colon carcinogenesis may partially depend on PGE, concentration decrease in colonic mucosa and on the type of pectin, also related to fecal enzyme activities.

Effects of apple pectin on fecal bacterial enzymes in azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

Ohkami H, Tazawa K, Yamashita I, Shimizu T, Murai K, Kobashi K, Fujimaki M Second Department of Surgery, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University.

Jpn J Cancer Res 1995 Jun;86(6):523-9
Because of the potential significance of colonic bacteria in colon carcinogenesis, we investigated the effect of pectin of different types on fecal bacterial enzymes (beta-glucuronidase, beta-glucosidase and tryptophanase) at various periods of time after feeding rats with pectin-containing diets during azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis. The diet supplemented with 20% apple pectin or 20% citrus pectin decreased the multiplicity of colon tumors, and the number of tumors was significantly decreased in the group fed apple pectin. The incidence of colon tumors in the apple pectin group was lower than that in the control group. The mean tumor size was similar among the three groups. Apple pectin feeding decreased fecal beta-glucosidase and tryptophanase levels. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in the apple pectin group during the initiation phase. These findings suggest that the protective effect of pectin on colon carcinogenesis may be dependent on the type of pectin and be related to the decrease of beta-glucuronidase activity in the initiation stage of carcinogenesis.

Carcinogen binding to various types of dietary fiber.

Smith-Barbaro P, Hanson D, Reddy BS

J Natl Cancer Inst 1981 Aug;67(2):495-7
The percent of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) bound to a variety of fibers, such as wheat bran, corn bran, citrus pulp, citrus pectin, and alfalfa, was examined at pH values ranging from 1 to 12. The percent of DMH bound to wheat bran increased from 4% at PH 1 to 55% at pH 2 to 77% at pH 12. A sharp rise in carcinogen binding to corn bran occurred between pH 5% of the DMH was bound and pH 8 where 51% of the DMH was bound. The percent of DMH bound to dehydrated citrus pulp also increased as the pH increased with 10% binding observed at pH 1 and with 57% binding observed at pH 12. Between pH 2 and pH 7, the percent of DMH bound to pectin decreased from 60 to 11%. As the pH became more basic, the percent of DMH bound to pectin increased to 42% at pH 12. The sharpest rise in the percent of DMH bound to alfalfa meal occurred between pH 10.5 and pH 12.0. Results from this experiment showed that the affinity to various types of dietary fibers for the colon carcinogen DMH was differentially affected by pH. These results suggested that the protective effect of certain types of dietary fiber against chemically induced colon cancer my in part be attributed to enhanced carcinogen binding by dietary fiber in the colon.

Effect of dietary alfalfa, pectin, and wheat bran on azoxymethane-or methylnitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats.

Watanabe K, Reddy BS, Weisburger JH, Kritchevsky D

J Natl Cancer Inst 1979 Jul;63(1):141-5
The effect of dietary alfalfa, pectin, and wheat bran on colon carcinogenesis was studied in female inbred F344 rats. Weanling rats were fed semipurified diets containing 0 or 15% alfalfa, pectin, or wheat bran. At 7 weeks of age, all animals except controls were given azoxymethane (AOM) sc at a dose rate of 8 mg/kg body weight/week for 10 weeks or methylnitrosourea (MNU) intrarectally at a dose rate of 2 mg/rat twice a week for 3 weeks. The AOM-treated group was autopsied 40 weeks and the MNU-treated group 30 weeks after the first injection of the carcinogen. No tumors were observed in the colon or other organs of untreated rats fed the various diets. The animals fed the alfalfa diet and treated with MNU had a higher incidence of colon tumors than did those fed the control diet or the diets containing pectin or wheat bran. The incidence of MNU-induced colon tumors did not differ between the animals fed the control diet or the diets containing pectin or wheat bran. However, the incidence of AOM-induced colon tumors in rats fed diets containing pectin or wheat bran was lower than that in rats fed the control diet or the alfalfa diet. These results thus indicate that the effect of fiber in colon carcinogenesis depends on the type of fiber and, possibly, the fiber's mode of action.