In vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.
Immunopharmacology (NETHERLANDS) Jan 1997, 35 (3) p229-35
Extracts of Echinacea purpurea and Panax ginseng were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate cellular immune function by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal individuals and patients with either the chronic fatigue syndrome or the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PBMC isolated on a Ficoll-hypaque density gradient were tested in the presence or absence of varying concentrations of each extract for natural killer (NK) cell activity versus K562 cells and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against human herpesvirus 6 infected H9 cells. Both echinacea and ginseng, at concentrations > or = 0.1 or 10 micrograms/kg, respectively, significantly enhanced NK-function of all groups. Similarly, the addition of either herb significantly increased ADCC of PBMC from all subject groups. Thus, extracts of Echinacea purpurea and Panax ginseng enhance cellular immune function of PBMC both from normal individuals and patients with depressed cellular immunity.
Immune modulating properties of root extracts of different Echinacea species
Zeitschrift fur Phytotherapie (Germany) , 1995, 16/3 (157-162+165-166)
Purified root extracts from Echinacea purpurea (L.) MOENCH., Echinacea angustifolia D.C. and Echinacea pallida (NUTT.) NUTT. revealed biological activity in different immunological and virological test systems. All three plants exhibited different activity on immunological parameters, such as mitogenic stimulation, production of immunoglobulin IgM and of certain cytokines. An antiviral activity versus herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) and influenza virus (A2) was observed. The extracts under investigation also showed an indirect antiviral effect via stimulation of the interferon alpha, beta-production.
Direct characterization of caffeoyl esters with antihyaluronidase activity in crude extracts from Echinacea angustifolia roots by fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry
FARMACO (Italy) , 1993, 48/10 (1447-1461)
Fast atom bombardment (FAB-MS) and fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-NS/MS) techniques (negative ions) have been successfully applied for identification of the constituents responsible for the anti- hyaluronidase activity of Echinacea angustifolia roots, whose extracts are widely employed for the adjuvant therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases. Crude extracts from different solvents were tested for antihyaluronidase activity, and those with the greatest inhibitory action (the ethylacetate, butylacetate and chloroform fractions, IC50 0.44, 0.50 e 0.62 mg/ml) were directly analyzed by MS. Full scan mass spectra produced intense molecular anions: collisional activation of these resulted in tandem mass spectra rich in significant product ions. Four main caffeoyl conjugates were detected and identified by tandem mass spectrometry (daughter and parent ion mode): 2,3- O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid (chicoric acid) and 5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid (cynarine) and 2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid (caffaric acid) in the ethylacetate fraction. Among these caffeoyl conjugates, chicoric and caftaric acids had the greatest antihyaluronidase activity: IC50 = 0.42 and 0.61 mM, while the IC50 of cynarine and chlorogenic acid were .85 and 2.25 mM.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Echinacea angustifolia fractions separated on the basis of molecular weight
PHARMACOL. RES. COMMUN. (United Kingdom) , 1988, 20/SUPPL. 5 (87-90)
Five fractions of an aqueous extract obtained from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia were separated on the basis of molecular weight. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the fractions has been evaluated in mice using the Croton oil ear test. The fraction with a molecular weight between 30,000 and 100,000 was the most active in inhibiting the oedema; it also reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells. The activity of this fraction was comparable with that of a raw polysaccharidic extract obtained from E. angustifolia roots by differential solubility. The high-molecular weight polysaccharides are therefore proposed as the anti-inflammatory principles of the plant.
[Immunomodulating activity of ethanol-water extracts of the roots of Echinacea gloriosa L., Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Rudbeckia speciosa Wenderoth tested on the immune system in C57BL6 inbred mice]
Cesk Farm (CZECH REPUBLIC) Aug 1993
The ethanolic extract from the roots Echinacea gloriosa L. (Moench), Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Rudbeckia speciosa Wenderoth shows immunomodulating activity. It was seen on the seventh day after five days of in vivo treatment of mice. The most marked immunostimulatory effect was observed on the lysosomal and peroxidal activity of peritoneal macrophages, and splenic cells after in vivo treatment with the ethanolic xtract of the roots of R. speciosa Wenderoth.