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VITAMIN A (RETINOL)



Table of Contents
image Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer
image Serologic precursors of cancer. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol and risk of prostate cancer
image Zinc, vitamin A and prostatic cancer
image In vitro studies of human prostatic epithelial cells: Attempts to identify distinguishing features of malignant cells
image Application of molecular epidemiology to lung cancer chemoprevention.
image Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease
image Review: Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis
image Retinol (Vitamin A) supplements in the elderly
image Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group
image Vitamins and metals: Potential dangers for the human being
image Vitamin A concentration in the liver decreases with age in patients with cystic fibrosis.
image Relationship between liver cirrhosis death rate and nutritional factors in 38 countries
image Retinoids and carcinogenesis
image Retinoids in cancer treatment.
image Vitamin A preserves the cytotoxic activity of adriamycin while counteracting its peroxidative effects in human leukemic cells in vitro.
image Linking vitamin A and childhood immunizations
image Effect of early vitamin A supplementation on cell-mediated immunity in infants younger than 6 mo
image Molecular mechanisms of vitamin A action and their relationship to immunity
image Historical overview of nutrition and immunity, with emphasis on vitamin A
image Factors associated with age-related macular degeneration. An analysis of data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
image Antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in hereditary haemochromatosis.
image Chemoprevention of oral leukoplakia and chronic esophagitis in an area of high incidence of oral and esophageal cancer.
image [The role of platelets in the protective effect of a combination of vitamins A, E, C and P in thrombinemia]
image Vitamin A and carotene values of institutionalized mentally retarded subjects with and without Down's syndrome.
image Nutrient intake and food use in an Ojibwa-Cree community in Northern Ontario assessed by 24h dietary recall
image [Patients with type-II diabetes mellitus and neuropathy have nodeficiency of vitamins A, E, beta-carotene, B1, B2, B6, B12 and folic acid]
image Malnutrition in geriatric patients: diagnostic and prognostic significance of nutritional parameters.
image The age-associated decline in immune function of healthy individuals is not related to changes in plasma concentrations of beta-carotene, retinol, alpha-tocopherol or zinc
image [The effect of vitamin A and Astragalus on the splenic T lymphocyte-CFU of burned mice]
image Randomised comparison of fluorouracil, epidoxorubicin and methotrexate (FEMTX) plus supportive care with supportive care alone in patients with non-resectable gastric cancer.
image Critical reappraisal of vitamins and trace minerals in nutritional support of cancer patients.
image Vitamin A, a useful biochemical modulator capable of preventing intestinal damage during methotrexate treatment.
image Hyperthermia, radiation carcinogenesis and the protective potential of vitamin A and N-acetylcysteine
image Immune suppression: therapeutic alterations
image Effects of vitamins A, C, and E on aflatoxin Bsub 1-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA-98 and TA-100
image Effect of vitamin A supplementation on lectin-induced diarrhoea and bacterial translocation in rats
image Increased translocation of Escherichia coli and development of arthritis in vitamin A-deficient rats
image Gastrointestinal infections in children
image Intestinal malabsorption presenting with night blindness
image Etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children from Alabang, Metro Manila
image Effect of vitamin A in enteral formulae for burned guinea-pigs
image Vitamin A supplementation improves macrophage function and bacterial clearance during experimental salmonella infection
image Inhibition by retinoic acid of multiplication of virulent tubercle bacilli in cultured human macrophages
image Corneal ulceration, measles, and childhood blindness in Tanzania
image Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality. A randomised controlled community trial
image Impaired blood clearance of bacteria and phagocytic activity in vitamin A-deficient rats (41999)
image Chronic salmonella septicemia and malabsorption of vitamin A
image Retinol level in patients with psoriasis during treatment with B group vitamins, a bacterial polysaccharide (pyrogenal) and methotrexate (Russian)
image Socioeconomic status and lung cancer incidence in men in The Netherlands: Is there a role for occupational exposure?
image Asthma but not smoking-related airflow limitation is associated with a high fat diet in men: Results from the population study 'Men born in 1914'
image Diminished production of malondialdehyde after carotid artery surgery as a result of vitamin administration
image Effect of supplemental vitamin A on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation
image Nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a normally aging sample: a 6-y reassessment.
image Antioxidant status of hypercholesterolemic patients treated with LDL apheresis
image Diet and risk of esophageal cancer by histologic type in a low-risk Group
image New agents for cancer chemoprevention
image Metabolism of vitamin A in inflammatory bowel disease
image Vitamin status in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
image Zinc and vitamin A deficiency in patients with Crohn's disease is correlated with activity but not with localization or extent of the disease
image Antioxidants, Helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer in Venezuela.
image Vitamins as therapy in the 1990s
image Association of esophageal cytological abnormalities with vitamin and lipotrope deficiencies in populations at risk for esophageal cancer

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Asthma but not smoking-related airflow limitation is associated with a high fat diet in men: Results from the population study 'Men born in 1914'

Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease (Italy), 1996, 51/1 (16-21)

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between asthma and the intake of food with pro-oxidant or antioxidant activity (fat, alcohol, iron, zinc, and vitamins A and C), and to analyse whether any such association is specific to asthma or is found in airflow limitation in general. This study deals with 478 men, who were randomly selected from all the men born in Malmo in 1914. They were investigated using spirometry and their medical, occupational and dietary history was recorded in 1982-1983, at the age of 68 yrs, as part of the cohort study 'Men born in 1914'. Asthma was defined as a past or present physician's or nurse's diagnosis of asthma and airflow limitation was defined as a forced expiratory volume in one second/vital capacity ratio (FEV1/VC) of less than 70%, The relative risk of having asthma or airflow limitation as related to dietary intake at the age of 68 yrs was analysed after adjustments for smoking history and body mass index. Asthma was reported in 21 men and was not related to smoking history. Asthma was more common in men with a high fat intake (relative risk of asthma 1.74 for a 10% increase in fat intake, 95% confidence interval for the relative risk 1.13-2.68). The consumption of alcohol was higher for current smelters than ex-smelters and nonsmokers, and the intake of carbohydrates, vitamin C and iron was lower. Airflow limitation without asthma was present in 156 men and was related to smelting but not to dietary intake. Men with asthma had a significantly higher intake of fat than men without asthma. This difference appeared to be specific to asthma and was not found in airflow limitation in general.



Diminished production of malondialdehyde after carotid artery surgery as a result of vitamin administration

Medical Science Research (United Kingdom), 1996, 24/11 (777-780)

The objective of this study was to establish the antioxidative effect of the vitamins E, C and retinyl palmitate (vitamin A), contained in a multivitamin solution, in carotid artery revascularisation surgery. 57 patients, 67.84 plus or minus 5.72 years of age, 39 men and 18 women, were divided into a control group (27 subjects) and a group with 30 subjects (mean age 68.46 plus or minus 5.09 years) who received the vitamin treatment immediately before the start of reperfusion of the brain. The control group (mean age 67.14 plus or minus 6.37 years) received physiological sodium chloride as placebo. All of the patients suffered from ischaemic cerebrovascular insufficiency manifested as TIA (transitory ischaemic attack) due to haemodynamically significant stenosis of the extracranial part of the ICA (internal carotid artery). Oxidative burst was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) - thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) perioperatively before and 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h after revascularisation. In the control group MDA-TBARS significantly increased from 0.91 plus or minus 0.49 to 1.15 plus or minus 0.41 nmol mL-1 (p < 0.003) 1 h after reperfusion onset and returned to baseline after 2-3 h. In the vitamin-treated group MDA-TBARS steadily decreased during the reperfusion period (1.11 plus or minus 0.39, 0.91 plus or minus 0.42, 0.81 plus or minus 0.29, 0.78 plus or minus 0.39, 0.72 plus or minus 0.24 nmol mL-1). The significant difference in MDA-TBARS between control and treatment groups, 1 h after the start at reperfusion was 1.15 plus or minus 0.41 vs 0.81 plus or minus 0.29 nmol mL-1; (p < 0.001). As an indirect parameter of reperfusion injury 13% (4/30 patients) of the patients in thetreatment group suffered... The perioperative use of antihypertensive drugs was 20% (6/30) in the treatment group, as compared to 78% (21/27) in the control group. These results suggests that vitamin treatment prior to reperfusion might be of beneficial effect, alleviating lipid peroxidation and leading to a better clinical course as regards the central nervous system.



Effect of supplemental vitamin A on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation

AM. J. SURG. (USA), 1987, 153/2 (153-156)

We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin A on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Rats were divided into two groups. Those in the first group were fed a standard chow diet and those in the second group were fed the same diet supplemented with 150 IU vitamin A/g of chow. The rats were maintained on their respective diets throughout the experiment. After 7 days, half the rats in each group underwent abdominal irradiation (200 rads). Seven days later, all of the rats underwent distal colon division and anastomosis under pentobarbital anesthesia. All rats were killed 7 days postoperatively, the colons excised, and bursting strength and hydroxyproline determinations performed on both the anastomotic segment and a normal proximal segment of adjacent colon. There was a significant decrease in the bursting strength at the colon anastomosis (p < 0.02) and in the collagen content (p < 0.02) after preoperative irradiation. This effect was mitigated by dietary vitamin A supplementation.



Nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a normally aging sample: a 6-y reassessment.

Am J Clin Nutr (UNITED STATES) Jan 1997, 65 (1) p20-9

Associations between nutritional status and cognitive performance were examined in 137 elderly (aged 66-90 y) community residents. Participants were well-educated, adequately nourished, and free of significant cognitive impairment. Performance on cognitive tests in 1986 was related to both past (1980) and concurrent (1986) nutritional status. Several significant associations (P < 0.05) were observed between cognition and concurrent vitamin status, including better abstraction performance with higher biochemical status and dietary intake of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and folate (rs = 0.19-0.29) and better visuospatial performance with higher plasma ascorbate (r = 0.22). Concurrent dietary protein in 1986 correlated significantly (rs = 0.25-0.26) with memory scores, and serum albumin or transferrin with memory, visuospatial, or abstraction scores (rs = 0.18-0.22). Higher past intake of vitamins E, A, B-6, and B-12 was related to better performance on visuospatial recall and/or abstraction tests (rs = 0.19-0.28). Use of self-selected vitamin supplements was associated with better performance on a difficult visuospatial test and an abstraction test. Although associations were relatively weak in this well-nourished and cognitively intact sample, the pattern of outcomes suggests some direction for further research on cognition-nutrition associations in aging.



Antioxidant status of hypercholesterolemic patients treated with LDL apheresis

Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy (USA), 1996, 10/5 (567-571)

Oxidation of low density lipoprotein is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Epidemiological studies suggest a negative correlation between the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and blood concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamins A and E and beta-carotene. Trace elements, such zymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and trace element status of patients with severe hypercholesterolemia who had been treated with dextran-sulphate low-density lipoprotein apheresis in comparison with two control populations, normocholesterolemic subjects and untreated hypercholesterolemic patients. Our results showed that, patients treated with LDL apheresis, compared with normocholesteromic subjects, were not deficient in vitamin E, beta-carotene, and copper, but had low plasma levels of selenium, zinc, and vitamin A. The low selenium and vitamin A levels were due to the LDL apheresis treatment, and the hypercholesterolemia might have provoked the low plasma levels of zinc.This study pointed out the potential benefits of supplemental selenium, zinc, and vitamin A in patients being treated with LDL apheresis.



Diet and risk of esophageal cancer by histologic type in a low-risk Group

International Journal of Cancer (USA), 1996, 68/3 (300-304)

In a hospital-based case-control study of esophageal cancer undertaken in Athens (1989-1991), 43 patients with incident esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and 56 patients with incident esophageal adenocarcinoma were compared to 200 injury patients. Personal interviews were conducted in the hospital setting, and dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intakes for individuals were calculated by multiplying the nutrient content of a typical portion size for each specified food item by the frequency with which the food was consumed per month and summing these estimates for all food items. Data were modeled through logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking, consumption of alcoholic beverages and total energy intake. Consumption of vegetables and fruits as well as intake of vitamin A, vitamin C and crude fiber were inversely associated with esophageal cancer in general, but the respective associations were stronger for adenocarcinoma. There was evidence that added oils and fats and intake of polyunsaturated fat were positively associated with adenocarcinoma but inversely associated with squamous-cell carcinoma.



New agents for cancer chemoprevention

Nation996, 63/SUPPL. 26 (1-28)

Clinical chemoprevention trials of more than 30 agents and agent combinations are now in progress or being planned. The most advanced agents are well known and are in large Phase III chemoprevention intervention trials or epidemiological studies. These drugs include several retinoids (e.g., retinol, retinyl palmitate, all-trans-retinoic acid, and 13-cis-retinoic acid), calcium, betacarotene, vitamin E, tamoxifen, and finasteride. Other newer agents are currently being evaluated in or being considered for Phase II and early Phase III chemoprevention trials. Prominent in this group are all-trans-N-(4-hydroxy phenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) (alone and in combination with tamoxifen), 2-difluoromethylomithine (DFMO), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (aspirin, piroxicam, sulindac), oltipraz, and dehydroepiandrostenedione (DHEA). A third group is new agents showing chemopreventive activity in animal models, epidemiological studies, or in pilot clinical intervention studies. They are now in preclinical toxicology testing or Phase I safety and pharmacokinetics trials preparatory to chemoprevention efficacy trials. These agents include S-allyl-l-cysteine, curcumin, DHEA analog 8354 (fluasterone), genistein, ibuprofen, indole-3- carbinol, perillyl alcohol, phenethyl isothiocyanate, 9-cis-retinoic acid, sulindac sulfone, tea extracts, ursodiol, vitamin D analogs, and p-xylyl selenocyanate. A new generation of agents and agent combinations will soon enter clinical chemoprevention studies based primarily on promising chemopreventive activity in animal models and in mechanistic studies. Among these agents are more efficacious analogs of known chemopreventive drugs including novel carotenoids (e.g., alpha-carotene and lutein). Also included are safer analogs which retain the chemopreventive efficacy of the parent drug such as vitamin D3 analogs.Other agents of high interest are aromatase inhibitors (e.g., (+)-vorozole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., Bowman-Birk soybean trypsin inhibitor). Combinations are also being considered, such as vitamin E with l-selenomethionine. Analysis of signal transduction pathways is beginning to yield classes of potentially active and selective chemopreventive drugs. Examples are ras isoprenylation and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.



Metabolism of vitamin A in inflammatory bowel disease

Janczewska I.; Bartnik W.; Butruk E.; Tomecki R.; Kazik E.; Ostrowski J. Department of Gastroenterology, Goszczynskiego 1, P-02-616 Warsaw Poland HEPATO-GASTROENTEROLOGY (Germany), 1991, 38/5 (391-395)

The aim of this study was to determine serum retinol levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and to attempt to elucidate the mechanism of changes in vitamin A metabolism in these disorders. It was found that in 15 patients with active ulcerative colitis, 14 patients with active Crohn's disease and in 3 operated patients with recurrent Crohn's disease serum retinol levels and retinol-binding protein were significantly lower than in controls. Concentrations of vitamin A did not depend on the localization of inflammatory bowel disease, previous ileal resections, duration of the disease or age and sex of the patients. During successful treatment of active ulcerative colitis normalization of serum retinol levels without substitution of vitamin A was observed. Repeated determinations in patients with Crohn's disease who had low serum retinol levels in an active phase of disease revealed normal vitamin A levels in an inactive phase. The absorption of vitamins A and E in patients with inflammatory bowel disease was normal. The normal serum retinol concentrations in patients with diarrhea due to irritable bowel syndrome, and in those with anorexia nervosa exclude the influence of diarrhea and body weight itself on vitamin A levels. The results of this study indicate that serum retinol levels in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease are secondary to the decreased serum retinol-binding protein concentrations, and probably depend on the increased protein catabolism in these disorders.



Vitamin status in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Fernandez-Banares F.; Abad-Lacruz A.; Xiol X.; Gine J.J.; Dolz C.; Cabre E.; Esteve M.; Gonzalez-Huix F.; Gassull M.A. Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital de Bellvitge 'Princeps d'Espanya', Barcelona Spain AM. J. GASTROENTEROL. (USA), 1989, 84/7 (744-748)

The status of water- and fat-soluble vitamins was prospectively evaluated in 23 patients (13 men, 10 women, mean age 33 plus or minus 3 yr) admitted to the hospital with acute or subacute attacks of inflammatory bowel disease. Protein-energy status was also assessed by means of simultaneous measurement of triceps skin-fold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference, and serum albumin. Fifteen patients (group A) had extensive acute colitis (ulcerative or Crohn's colitis), and eight cases (group B) had small bowel or ileocecal Crohn's disease. Eighty-nine healthy subjects (36 men, 53 women, mean age 34 plus or minus 2 yr) acted as controls. In both groups of patients, the levels of biotin, folate, beta-carotene, and vitamins A, C, and B1 were significantly lower than in controls (p < 0.05). Plasma levels of vitamin B12 were decreased only in group B (p < 0.01), whereas riboflavin was lower in group A (p < 0.01). The percentage of patients at risk of developing hypovitaminosis was 40% or higher for vitamin A, beta-carotene, folate, biotin, vitamin C, and thiamin in both groups of patients. Although some subjects had extremely low vitamin values, in no case were clinical symptoms of vitamin deficiency observed. Only a weak correlation was found between protein-energy nutritional parameters and vitamin values, probably due to the small size of the sample studied. The pathophysiological and clinical implications of the suboptimal vitamin status observed in acute inflammatory bowel disease are unknown. Further studies on long-term vitamin status and clinical outcome in these patients are necessary.



Zinc and vitamin A deficiency in patients with Crohn's disease is correlated with activity but not with localization or extent of the disease

Schoelmerich J.; Becher M.S.; Hoppe-Seyler P.; et al. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg GERMANY, WEST HEPATO-GASTROENTEROL. (GERMANY, WEST), 1985, 32/1 (34-38)

A study of serum zinc and plasma vitamin A concentrations in 54 patients with Crohn's disease was performed. Compared with controls the patients had significantly lowered zinc and vitamin A concentrations. There was a marked correlation between zinc and vitamin A and the activity of the disease, as measured by the Crohn's disease activity index, and a weaker correlation with serum proteins considered to be indicators of disease activity. No correlation was found to vitamin B12 absorption, to the localization of the disease, or to previous ileal resection. The results suggest that zinc and vitamin A deficiency occurs in patients with active Crohn's disease and is not primarily caused by absorption abnormalities. Substitution might be helpful or even necessary in patients with highly active disease.



Antioxidants, Helicobacter pylori and stomach cancer in Venezuela.

de Sanjose S; Munoz N; Sobala G; Vivas J; Peraza S; Cano E; Castro D; Sanchez V; Andrade O; Tompkins D; Schorah CJ; Axon AT; Benz M; Oliver W Servei d'Epidemiologia i Registre del Cancer, Institut Catala d'Oncologia Hospital Duran i Reynals, Barcelona, Spain. Eur J Cancer Prev (ENGLAND) Feb 1996, 5 (1) p57-62

A randomized chemoprevention trial on precancerous lesions of the stomach is being conducted in Tachira State, Venezuela. The aims of the study are to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin supplementation in preventing the progression rate of precancerous lesions. Here we report on the pilot phase of the study in which two antioxidant preparations were evaluated on their ability to raise antioxidant levels in plasma and in gastric juice. The study aimed also to determine the antibiotic sensitivity profiles of Helicobacter pylori isolates prevalent in the area. Forty-three subjects with precancerous lesions (chronic gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) of the stomach were randomized to one of atments. Treatment 1 (250 mg of standard vitamin C, 200 mg of vitamin E and 6 mg of beta-carotene three times a day) or treatment 2 (150 mg of standard vitamin C, 500 mg of slow release vitamin C, 75 mg of vitamin E and 15 mg of beta-carotene once a day) for 7 days. Blood levels of total vitamin C, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol and gastric juice levels of ascorbic acid and total vitamin C were measured before and after treatment on day 8. Both treatments increased the plasma levels of total vitamin C, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol/cholesterol but not those of ascorbic acid or total vitamin C in gastric juice. Treatment 1 was the best choice and resulted in a greater increase in the plasma levels of beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol. H. pylori was cultured from 90% of the gastric biopsies; 35 isolates were identified which were highly resistant to metronidazole, a front-line antibiotic recommended against H. pylori in other settings.



Vitamins as therapy in the 1990s

Journal of the American Board of Family Practice (USA), 1995, 8/3 (206-216)

Background: At one time vitamins were considered as essential nutrients needed only in very small amounts to prevent deficiency syndromes. Many vitamins and their derivatives, however, are currently being used in the mainstream of medicine as therapeutic modalities. Methods: A MEDLINE literature search for clinical reviews and original studies on the use of vitamins in medicine was conducted along with a search of the obtained papers' bibliographies. The primary years of search were 1990-1994. Research reports written before 1990 were used after cross-referencing from more recent articles. Results and Conclusions: Based on the literature review, several recommendations for the use of vitamins for treatment and prevention are presented. They include topical vitamin A derivatives (tretinoin) for the treatment of acne and age-related skin damage, oral vitamin A derivatives for severe cystic acne (isotretinoin) and psoriasis (etretinate), vitamin D3 for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal females, topical vitamin D in psoriasis patients, and niacin for serum cholesterol reduction. Folate appears to decrease the incidence of neural tube defects if given in the preconception phase of pregnancy. Finally, recent preliminary evidence suggests the possible benefit of antioxidants (vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene) in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cancer.



Association of esophageal cytological abnormalities with vitamin and lipotrope deficiencies in populations at risk for esophageal cancer

ANTICANCER RES. (Greece), 1988, 8/4 (711-716)

Esophageal brush cytological screening was undertaken and blood concentrations of micronutrients (vitamins A, E, B12, folic acid and methionine) determined from adults at risk for esophageal carcinoma (EC) in Transkei and Ciskei, Southern Africa. Age-standardised EC rates per 100,000 per annum for both sexes in high, intermediate and low risk districts in Transkei were 74, 51 and 34, respectively. Corresponding rates in high and low EC risk districts in Ciskei were 129 and 9, respectively. Esophageal cytological changes including esophagitis, signs of folic acid deficiency, cellular atypia, dysplasia and cancer, were more prevalent in patients from high than from low EC risk areas. Dietary questionnaires revealed that corn was the main dietary staple in all populations, but that lower intakes of green vegetables, fruits and animal protein occurred in the high risk areas. Significantly lower concentrations of vitamins A, E, B12 and folic acid were present in the blood of patients presenting with cellular dysplasia or malignancy than in cytologically normal patients and in patients from the low risk areas. Concentrations of red cell and plasma folate were significantly lower in patients presenting with cytological signs of folic acid deficiency or cellular atypia. The association of vitamin A, vitamin E and folic acid deficiencies with specific esophageal cytological abnormalities in populations at risk for EC is reported for the first time.