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VITAMIN E (ALPHA TOCOPHEROL)




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Vitamin E ameliorates renal injury in an experimental model of immunoglobulin A nephropathy.

Trachtman H; Chan JC; Chan W; Valderrama E; Brandt R; Wakely P; Futterweit S; Maesaka J; Ma C
Department of Pediatrics (Division of Nephrology), Schneider Children's Hospital, New Hyde Park New York 11040, USA.
Pediatr Res (UNITED STATES) Oct 1996, 40 (4) p620-6

IgA nephropathy is one of the most common forms of glomerular disease. Nearly 25% of affected patients progress to end-stage renal disease over a 20-25-y follow-up period. IgA-containing immune complexes stimulate oxygen-free radical production by mesangial cells in vitro. The excessive oxidant stress may mediate glomerular injury in this disorder. Therefore, we studied whether dietary supplementation with the antioxidant agent, vitamin E, attenuates renal disease in an experimental model of incipient IgA nephropathy with mild kidney inflammation. IgA nephropathy was induced in male Lewis rats by oral immunization with 0.1% bovine gamma-globulin (BGG)-containing drinking water for 8 wk. At the completion of this period, animals received BGG, 1 mg/dose i.v., on three successive days. Experimental rats (n = 10) received a specially formulated diet containing 100 IU of vitamin E/kg of chow, whereas control animals (n = 10) were fed chow containing 30 IU of vitamin/kg of chow. The BGG immunization regimen induced mesangial IgA deposition in all rats. Vitamin E supplementation resulted in a nearly 5-fold increase in the serum vitamin E concentration. Vitamin E-treated rats gained more weight and had a lower incidence of hematuria, 20% versus 80% (p < 0.03). Moreover, proteinuria was decreased by 50%, and reduced renal plasma flow was restored to normal, compared with untreated rats with IgA nephropathy. Glomerular hypertrophy occurred in animals with IgA nephropathy, but less so in those receiving vitamin E supplementation. Renal cortical malondialdehyde content was reduced from 1.55 +/- 0.10 to 1.22 +/- 0.09 nmol/mg of protein (p < 0.01) in rats fed the vitamin E-enriched diet. Finsforming growth factor-beta 1 gene expression was reduced by 34% in rats with IgA nephropathy receiving vitamin E treatment (p < 0.05). We conclude that experimental IgA nephropathy is associated with increased renal oxidant injury. Dietary treatment with the antioxidant agent, vitamin E, attenuated renal functional and structural changes in this experimental glomerulopathy. These studies support the importance of clinical trials for the evaluation of the efficacy of antioxidant therapy in patients with IgA nephropathy.



Demonstration of organotropic effects of chemopreventive agents in multiorgan carcinogenesis models.

Tsuda H; Iwahori Y; Asamoto M; Baba-Toriyama H; Hori T; Kim DJ; Uehara N; Iigo M; Takasuka N; Murakoshi M; Nishino H; Kakizoe T; Araki E; Yazawa K
National Cancer Center Research Institute, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
IARC Sci Publ (FRANCE) 1996, (139) p143-50

Organotropic chemopreventive effects of three (pro)vitamins and three unsaturated fatty acids were examined using mouse and rat multiorgan carcinogenesis models. For the study of (pro)vitamins, male and female B6C3F1 mice were treated with N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) during the first 11 weeks, then from weeks 12 to 32 they received alpha-carotene (0.4 mg/mouse), beta-carotene (0.4 mg/mouse) or alpha-tocopherol (40 mg/mouse) three times a week by gavage; control mice received vehicle alone. In male mice, alpha-carotene significantly reduced liver weights, representing a reduced tumour mass (P < 0.001), and alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol significantly reduced the numbers of liver tumours (adenomas a0.01) as compared with control mice, the effects being greatest with alpha-carotene. In female mice, alpha-carotene significantly decreased the number of liver tumours (P < 0.001). In the lung, alpha-carotene and alpha-tocopherol reduced