Each year, an estimated 93,000 men and 82,000 women in the United States will be diagnosed with lung cancer, with a median age of 70 years of age (Jemal A et al 2006; Gloeckler Ries LA et al 2003). To date the prognosis is grim for most forms of lung cancer as the five-year overall survival rate of only 14 percent has hardly changed in the past 50 years (Sugimura H et al 2006). Cigarette smoking is the main cause of lung cancer; however, nonsmokers also develop the disease due to genetics, secondhand smoke, and exposure to toxins and radon gas (Toh CK et al 2006; Vukovic B et al 2005).
Novel approaches are urgently needed that reverse, suppress, or prevent lung cancer development (van Zandwijk N 2005). Early detection offers the best chance for long-term survival (Saba NF et al 2005). The conventional choices of treatment include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and depend on the type and stage of the cancer (European Lung Cancer Working Party 2006). Irrespective of the treatment method used, complementary therapy, such as nutritional supplementation and the use of bioresponse modifiers, is an important addition to traditional treatment that could help control symptoms, enhance quality of life, and improve overall survival (Jatoi A et al 2005b).