Health Concerns

Premenstrual Syndrome


Abraham GE, Lubran MM. Serum and red cell magnesium levels in patients with premenstrual tension. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Nov;34(11):2364–6.

Abraham GE. Nutritional factors in the etiology of the premenstrual tension syndromes. J Reprod Med. 1983;28(7):446–64.

Atmaca M, Kumru S, et al. Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2003 Apr;18(3):191–5.

Baldessarini R. Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders: Depression and anxiety disorders. In: Hardman J, Limbird L, eds. Goodman & Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. New York: McGraw Hill Medical Publishing Division; 2001:10(19).

Bell SJ, Goodrick GK. A functional food product for the management of weight. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2002 Mar;42(2):163–78.

Berga S. Premenstrual syndrome. In: Federman D, Dale D, eds. ACP Medicine. New York: WebMD Corporation; 2005.

Brush MG, Watson SJ, et al. Abnormal essential fatty acid levels in plasma of women with premenstrual syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Oct 15;150(4):363–6.

Bryant M, Cassidy A, et al. Effect of consumption of soy isoflavones on behavioural, somatic and affective symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome. Br J Nutr. 2005 May;93(5):731–9.

Butterweck V. Mechanism of action of St John’s wort in depression: What is known? CNS Drugs. 2003;17(8):539–62.

Chuong CJ, Dawson EB. Zinc and copper levels in premenstrual syndrome. Fertil Steril. 1994 Aug;62(2):313–20.

Clayton AH, Keller AE, et al. Exploratory study of premenstrual symptoms and serotonin variability. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006 Jan;9(1):51–7.

Cleckner-Smith CS, Doughty AS, et al. Premenstrual symptoms: Prevalence and severity in an adolescent sample. J Adolesc Health. 1998 May;22(5):403–8.

Facchinetti F, Borella P, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Aug;78(2):177–81.

Frackiewicz EJ, Shiovitz TM. Evaluation and management of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder 6. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2001 May;41(3):437–47.

Freeman EW, Sammel MD, et al. Premenstrual syndrome as a predictor of menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 May;103(5 Pt 1):960–6.

Fugh-Berman A, Kronenberg F. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in reproductive-age women: A review of randomized controlled trials. Reproductive Toxicology. 2003;17:137–52.

Ganong W. The gonads: Development and function of the reproductive system. In: Review of Medical Physiology. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill; 2003:21(23).

Golding JM, Taylor DL, et al. Prevalence of sexual abuse history in a sample of women seeking treatment for premenstrual syndrome. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2000 Jun;21(2):69–80.

Halaska M, Raus K, et al. [Treatment of cyclical mastodynia using an extract of Vitex agnus castus: Results of a double-blind comparison with a placebo]. Ceska Gynekol. 1998 Oct;63(5):388–92.

Harel Z, Biro FM, et al. Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of dysmenorrhea in adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Apr;174(4):1335–8.

Horrobin DF. The role of essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med. 1983 Jul;28(7):465–8.

Huang KL, Tsai SJ. St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) as a treatment for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: Case report. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2003;33(3):295–7.

Kendall KE, Schnurr PP. The effects of vitamin B6 supplementation on premenstrual symptoms. Obstet Gynecol. 1987 Aug;70(2):145–9.

Koshikawa N, Tatsunuma T, et al. Prostaglandins and premenstrual syndrome. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1992;45(1):33–6.

Kritz-Silverstein D, Wingard D, et al. The association of behavior and lifestyle factors with menstrual symptoms. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 1999;8(9):1185–93.

Lombardi I, Luisi S, et al. Adrenal response to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation in patients with premenstrual syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2004 Feb;18(2):79–87.

London RS, Murphy L, et al. Efficacy of alpha-tocopherol in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med. 1987 Jun;32(6):400–4.

Lustyk M, Widman L, et al. Stress, quality of life and physical activity in women with varying degrees of premenstrual symptomatology. Women Health. 2004;39(3):35–44.

Mayo Clinic. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) 2005. Available at:

Meden-Vrtovec H, Vujic D. Bromocriptine (Bromergon, Lek) in the management of premenstrual syndrome. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1992;19(4):242–8.

Neal M. Medical Pharmacology at a Glance. 4th ed. London: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2002.

Parry BL, Mendelson WB, et al. Longitudinal sleep EEG, temperature, and activity measurements across the menstrual cycle in patients with premenstrual depression and in age-matched controls. Psychiatry Res. 1989 Dec;30(3):285-303.

Piccoli A, Modena F, et al. Reduction in urinary prostaglandin excretion in the premenstrual syndrome. J Reprod Med. 1993;38(12):941–4.

Rabin DS, Schmidt PJ, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in patients with the premenstrual syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Nov;71(5):1158–62.

Redmond AM, James AW, et al. Premenstrual asthma: Emphasis on drug therapy options. J Asthma. 2004 Oct;41(7):687–93.

Sampalis F, Bunea R, et al. Evaluation of the effects of Neptune Krill Oil on the management of premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhea. Altern Med Rev. 2003 May;8(2):171–9.

Schellenberg R. Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study. BMJ. 2001 Jan 20;322(7279):134–7.

Smith MJ, Adams LF, et al. Abnormal luteal phase excitability of the motor cortex in women with premenstrual syndrome. Biol Psychiatry. 2003 Oct 1;54(7):757–62.

Stevinson C, Ernst E. A pilot study of Hypericum perforatum for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. BJOG. 2000 Jul;107(7):870–6.

Sundstrom I, Andersson A, et al. Patients with premenstrual syndrome have a different sensitivity to a neuroactive steroid during the menstrual cycle compared to control subjects. Neuroendocrinology. 1998 Feb;67(2):126–38.

Tamborini A, Taurelle R. [Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet. 1993 Jul;88(7-9):447–57.

Thys-Jacobs S, Silverton M, et al. Reduced bone mass in women with premenstrual syndrome. J Womens Health. 1995;4:161–8.

Thys-Jacobs S, Starkey P, et al. Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: Effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. Premenstrual Syndrome Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Aug;179(2):444–52.

Thys-Jacobs S. Micronutrients and the premenstrual syndrome: The case for calcium. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Apr;19(2):220–7.

Turner EH, Loftis JM, et al. Serotonin a la carte: Supplementation with the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan. Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Mar;109(3):325–38.

Wuttke W, Jarry H, et al. Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus): Pharmacology and clinical indications. Phytomedicine. 2003 May;10(4):348–57.

Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, et al. Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: Systematic review. BMJ. 1999 May 22;318(7195):1375–81.

Yamada T, Terashima T. Effects of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on neurotransmitter release and its relationship with glutamic acid neurotransmission. Nutr Neurosci. 2005 Aug;8(4):219–26.

Young EA, Korszun A. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in mood disorders. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2002 Mar;31(1):63–78.