Conventional Treatment Of Cervical Dysplasia And Cancer
The success rate of treating early-stage cervical dysplasia is extremely high. During treatment, a physician will attempt to remove the abnormal cells through a variety of methods, including cryotherapy, or freezing the cells to destroy them.
Alternatively, a procedure called loop electrosurgical excision may be performed. During this procedure, a thin wire loop with an electrical current is used to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue. Women treated with loop excision are likely to convert to HPV-negative status, which eliminates the risk for HPV-related cervical dysplasia and cancer (Aschkenazi-Steinberg 2005). If a larger area of the cervix contains abnormal cells, a gynecologist may perform a surgical procedure called cervical conization to remove all the abnormal cells.
In case of high-grade CIN, or if previous surgeries left too little cervical tissue, a hysterectomy may be recommended (Das 2005). In rare advanced cases, all the organs of the pelvis can be removed in a procedure called pelvic exenteration. Except for hysterectomy or pelvic exenteration, the surgical choices typically allow a woman to carry a child in future pregnancies.
Sometimes radiation or chemotherapy is required in addition to surgery for cancers that are recurrent or have spread beyond the pelvis. Survival rates depend on the stage of the cancer. With treatment, five-year survival rates are 80 to 85 percent for cervical and uterine tumors, 60 to 80 percent for tumors involving the upper part of the vagina, 30 to 50 percent for tumors still retained in the pelvis, and 14 percent when cancer has invaded the bladder or rectum or metastasized outside the pelvis.