Life Extension Final Clerance Sale

Heavy Metal Toxicity


Aaseth, J., Jacobsen, D., Andersen, O., Wickstron, E. Treatment of mercury and lead poisonings with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and sodium dimmercapto-propanesulfonate (DMPS). Analyst 1995 Mar; 120: 853ff; presented at the Fifth Nordic Symposium on Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease, Loen, Norway, June 19-20, 1994.

AHA. Chelation Therapy. AHA Recommendation 2001 Dec 3. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association.

Anderton, R.M. ADA Statement on Dental Amalgam 2001 May. Chicago, IL: American Dental Association.

Anon. Alzheimer's and aluminum: canning the myth. Food Insight 1993 Sep-Oct. Washington, D.C.: International Food Information Council Foundation.

Anon. Management of the Poisoned/Overdosed Patient (Continuing Education No. 430-000-99-026-H01). U.S. Pharmacist 2001. New York: Jobson.

Anuradha, B., Varalakshmi, P. Protective role of DL-alpha-lipoic acid against mercury-induced neural lipid peroxidation. Pharmacol. Res. 1999 Jan; 39(1): 67-80.

Bardin, J.A., Eisen, E.E., Wegman, D.H., Kriebel, D., Woskie, S.R., Gore, R.J.
Case-Control Studies of Liver, Gallbladder and Pancreatic Cancer and Metalworking Fluid Exposure in the Automobile Industry; presented to the 128th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, November 14, 2000. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association.

Beers, M.H., Berkow, M.D. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Section 23. Chapter 307. Poisoning 1999. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co.

Brink, W. Lactoferrin: the bioactive peptide that fights disease. Life Extension Magazine 2000 Oct; 6(10): 20-6. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Life Extension Foundation (

Brown, D.J. Characterizing Risk at Metal Finishing Facilities. Report EPA/600/R-97/111 May 1998. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Cai, L., Koropatnick, J., Cherian, M.G. Roles of vitamin C in radiation-induced DNA damage in presence and absence of copper. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2001 Jul 31; 137(1): 75-88.

Cha, C.W. A study on the effect of garlic to the heavy metal poisoning of rat. J. Korean Med. Sci. 1987 Dec; 2(4): 213-24.

Chouchane, S., Snow, E.T. In vitro effect of arsenical compounds on glutathione-related enzymes. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2001 May; 14(5): 517-22.

Clarkson, T.W. Mercury: an element of mystery. N. Engl. J. Med. 1990; 323: 1137-9.

Clayman, C.B., Ed. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine 1989. New York: Random House.

Cruz, T., Galvez, J. Ocete, M.A., Crespo, M.E., Sanchez de Medina, L.-H.F., Zarzuelo, A. Oral administration of rutoside can ameliorate inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Life Sci. 1998; 62(7): 687-95.

Daggett, E.A., Oberley, T.D., Nelson, S.A., Wright, L.S., Kornguth, S.E., Siegel, F.L. Effects of lead on rat kidney and liver: GST expression and oxidative stress. Toxicology 1998 Jul 17; 128(3): 191-206.

De Flora, S., Izzotti, A., D'Agostini, F., Balansky, R.M. Mechanisms of N-acetylcysteine in the prevention of DNA damage and cancer, with special reference to smoking-related end-points. Carcinogenesis 2001 Jul; 22(7): 999-1013.

Deschner, E.E., Ruperto, J.F., Wong, G.Y., Newmark, H.L. The effect of dietary quercetin and rutin on AOM-induced acute colonic epithelial abnormalities in mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutr. Cancer 1993; 20(3): 199-204.

Dhir, H., Roy, A.K., Sharma, A., Talukder, G. Modification of clastogenicity of lead and aluminium in mouse bone marrow cells by dietary ingestion of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract. Mutat. Res. 1990 Jul; 241(3): 305-12.

Dhir, H., Roy, A.K., Sharma, A. Relative efficiency of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract and ascorbic acid in modifying lead and aluminium-induced sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow. Environ. Mol. Mutagen 1993; 21(3): 229-36.

Dr. Joseph F. Smith Medical Library. Heavy Metal Poisoning 2001 Nov. Wassau, WI: Medical Library/Thomson.

Dupler, D. Heavy metal poisoning. Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine 2001. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group.

Esteves, A.C., Felcman, J. Study of the effect of the administration of Cd(II), cysteine, methionine, and Cd(II) together with cysteine or methionine on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2000 Jul; 76(1): 19-30.

Ewan, K., Pamphlett, R. Increased inorganic mercury in spinal motor neurons following chelating agents. Neurotoxicology 1996; 17(2): 343-9.

FDA. DMPS 1999. Washington, D.C.: Food and Drug Administration (

Ferner, D.J. Toxicity, heavy metals. eMed. J. 2001 May 25; 2(5): 1.

Fournier, L., Thomas, G., Garnier, R., Buisine, A., Houze, P., Pradier, F., Dally, S. 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment of heavy metal poisoning in humans. Med. Toxicol. Adverse Drug Exp. 1988; 3: 499-504.

Galvez, J., Cruz, T., Crespo, E., Ocete, M.A., Lorente, M.D., Sanchez de Medina, F., Zarzuelo, A. Rutoside as mucosal protective in acetic acid-induced rat colitis. Planta Med. 1997; 63(5): 409-14.

Gebel, T., Dunkelberg, H. Influence of chewing gum consumption and dental contact of amalgam fillings to different metal restorations on urine mercury content. Zentralbl. Hyg. Umweltmed. 1996 Nov; 199(1): 69-75 (in German).

Ghio, A.J., Kennedy, T.P., Crissman, K.M., Richards, J.H., Hatch, G.E. Depletion of iron and ascorbate in rodents diminishes lung injury after silica. Exp. Lung Res. 1998 Mar-Apr; 24(2): 219-32.

Girodon, F. Galan, P. Monget, A.L., Boutron-Ruault, M.C., Brunet-Lecomte, P., Preziosi, P., Arnaud, J., Manuguerra, J.C., Herchberg, S. Impact of trace elements and vitamin supplementation on immunity and infections in institutionalized elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial. MIN. VIT. AOX. geriatric network. Arch. Intern. Med. 1999 Apr 12; 159(7): 748-54.

Glanze, W.D. Mosby Medical Encyclopedia, Revised Edition 1996. St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby.

Goering, P.L., Aposhian, H.V., Mass, M.J., Cebrian, M., Beck, B.D, Waalkes, M.P. The enigma of arsenic carcinogenesis: role of metabolism. Toxicol. Sci. 1999 May; 49(1): 5-14.

Gonzalez-Correa, J.A., de la Cruz, J.P., Gordillo, J., Urena, I., Redondo, L., Sanchez de la Cuesta, F. Effects of silymarin MZ-80 on hepatic oxidative stress in rats with biliary
obstruction. Pharmacology 2002 Jan; 64(1): 18-27.

Goyer, R.A. Toxic effects of metals: mercury. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, Fifth Edition 1996. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Gubrelay, U., Mathur, R., Kannan, G.M., Flora, S.J. Role of S-adenosyl-L-methionine in potentiating cadmium mobilization by diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid in mice. Cytobios 2001; 104(406): 99-105.

Gurer, H., Ozgunes, H., Oztezcan, S., Ercal, N. Antioxidant role of alpha-lipoic acid in lead toxicity. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1999 Jul; 27(1-2): 75-81.

Horikoshi, T., Nakajima, A., and Sakaguchi, T. Uptake of uranium by various cell fractions of Chlorella regularis. Radioisotopes 1979 Aug; 28(8): 485-8.

Huang, K.-C. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs 1993. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Ichimura, S. Report. General meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, Hokuriku Branch, Toyoma City, Japan, October 27, 1973.

International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre. Metals. In Basics of Chemical Safety, Chapter 7, 1999 Sep. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

Isacsson, G., Barregard, L., Selden, A., Bodin, L. Impact of nocturnal bruxism on mercury uptake from dental amalgams. Eur. J. Oral Sci. 1997 Jun; 105(3): 251-7.

James, D. General Methods for Treating Poisoning 2001. Alberta, Canada: University of Alberta.

Klein-Schwartz, W., Oderda, G.M. Clinical toxicology. In Textbook of Therapeutics: Drug and Disease Management, Seventh Edition 2000, p. 51. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.

Kostyuk, V.A., Potapovich, A.I., Speransky, S.D., Maslova, G.T. Protective effect of natural flavonoids on rat peritoneal macrophages injury caused by asbestos fibers. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1996; 21(4): 487-93.

Kostyuk, V.A., Potapovich, A.I. Antiradical and chelating effects in flavoinoid protection against silica-induced cell injury. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1998 Jul 1; 355(1): 43-8.

Leung, F.Y. Trace elements that act as antioxidants in parenteral micronutrition. Can. J. Nutr. Biochem. 1998; 9(6): 304-7.

Lide, D. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 73rd Edition 1992. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Lorico, A., Bertola, A., Baum, C., Fodstad, O., Rappa, G. Role of the Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 in protection from heavy metal oxyanions: investigations in vitro and in MRP1-deficient mice. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2002 Mar 1; 291(3): 617-22.

Lupton, G.P., Kao, G.F., Johnson, F.B., Graham, J.H., Helwig, E.B. Cutaneous mercury granuloma. A clinicopathologic study and review of the literature. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 1985 Feb; 12(2, Pt. 1): 296-303.

Maiti, S., Chatterjee, A.K. Effects on levels of glutathione and some related enzymes in tissues after an acute arsenic exposure in rats and their relationship to dietary protein
deficiency. Arch. Toxicol. 2001 Nov; 75(9): 531-7.

Marcus, S. Toxicity, lead. eMed. J. 2001 Jun 4; 2(6): 7.

Medical Management Guidelines (MMGs): Managing Hazardous Material Incidents, Volume III 2001. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (

Micromedex. B.A.L.™ 1999. Greenwood Village, CO: Thomson/Micromedex.

Milchak, L.M., Douglas Bricker, J. The effects of glutathione and vitamin E on iron toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol. Lett. 2002 Feb 7; 126(3): 169-77.

Muller, L. Protective effects of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on cadmium-induced deterioration of rat hepatocytes. Toxicology 1989 Oct 2; 58(2): 175-85.

Muller, L., Menzel, H. Studies on the efficacy of lipoate and dihydrolipoate in the alteration of cadmium 2+ toxicity in isolated hepatocytes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1990 May 22; 1052(3): 386-91.

Muller, U., Krieglstein, J. Prolonged pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid protects cultured neurons against hypoxic, glutamate-, or iron-induced injury. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1995 Jul; 15(4): 624-30.

National Medical Library. Poisoning first aid. In Medical Encyclopedia 2001. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health (

O'Brien, J. Mercury amalgam toxicity. Life Extension Magazine 2001 May. 7(5): 43-51. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Life Extension Foundation (

Omura, Y., Beckman, S.L. Role of mercury (Hg) in resistant infections and effective treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes family viral infections (and potential treatment for cancer) by removing localized Hg deposits with Chinese parsley and delivering effective antibiotics using various drug uptake enhancement methods. Acupunct. Electrother. Res. 1995; 20(3-4): 195-229.

Omura, Y., Shimotsuura, Y., Fukuoka, A., Fukuoka, H., Nomoto, T. Significant mercury deposits in internal organs following the removal of dental amalgam, and development of pre-cancer on the gingiva and the sides of the tongue and their represented organs as a result of inadvertent exposure to strong curing light (used to solidify synthetic dental filling material) and effective treatment: a clinical case report, along with organ representation areas for each tooth. Acupunct. Electrother. Res. 1996; 1(2): 133-60.

Pakdaman, A. Symptomatic treatment of brain tumor patients with sodium selenite, oxygen, and other supportive measures. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1998 Apr-May; 62(1-2): 1-6.

Paredes, S.R., Kozicki, P.A., Batlle, A.M. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine: a counter to lead intoxication? Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 1985; 82(4): 751-7.

Perez Guerrero, C., Martin, M.J., Marhuenda, E. Prevention by rutin of gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats: role of endogenous prostaglandins. Gen. Pharmacol. 1994 May; 25(3): 575-80.

Pietrangelo, A., Borella, F., Casalgrandi, G., Montosi, G., Ceccarelli, D., Gallesi, D.,
Giovannini, F., Gasparetto, A., Masini, A. Antioxidant activity of silybin in vivo during long-term iron overload in rats. Gastroenterology 1995 Dec; 109(6): 1941-9.

Porter, J.M., Ivatury, R.R., Azimuddin, K., Swami, R. Antioxidant therapy in the prevention of organ dysfunction syndrome and infectious complications after trauma: early results of a prospective randomized study. Am. Surg. 1999 May; 65(5): 478-83; erratum, Am. Surg. 1999 Sep; 65(9): 902.

Prater, G. MSM: the multi-purpose compound. Life Extension Magazine 1999 Sep; 5(9): 71-2. Ft. Lauderdale, FL: Life Extension Foundation.

Pryor, W.A. Vitamin E and heart disease: basic science to clinical intervention trials. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 2000 Jan 1; 28(1): 141-64.

Quig, D. Cysteine metabolism and metal toxicity. Altern. Med. Rev. 1998 Aug; 3(4): 262-70.

Ringwood, A.H., Conners, D.E. The effects of glutathione depletion on reproductive success in oysters, Crassostrea virginica. Mar. Environ. Res. 2000 Jul-Dec; 50(1-5): 207-11.

Roberts, J.R. Metal toxicity in children. In Training Manual on Pediatric Environmental Health: Putting It into Practice 1999 Jun. Emeryville, CA: Children's Environmental Health Network (

Sallsten, G., Thoren, J., Barregard, L., Schutz, A., Skarping, G. Long-term use of nicotine chewing gum and mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings. J. Dent. Res. 1996 Jan; 75(1): 594-8.

Saxe, S.R., Wekstein, M.W., Kryscio, R.J., Henry, R.G., Cornett, C.R., Snowdon, D.A., Grant, F.T., Schmitt, F.A., Donegan, S.J., Wekstein, D.R., Ehmann, W.D., Markesbery, W.R. Alzheimer's disease, dental amalgam and mercury. J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 1999 Feb; 130(2): 191-9.

Schumacher, K. Effect of selenium on the side effect profile of adjuvant chemotherapy/radiotherapy in patients with breast carcinoma. Design for a clinical study. Med. Klin. 1999 Oct 15; 94(Suppl. 3): 45-8 (in German).

Shaikh, Z.A., Northup, J.B., Vestergaard, P. Dependence of cadmium-metallothionein nephrotoxicity on glutathione. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 1999a; 57(3): 211-22.

Shaikh, Z.A., Tang, W. Protection against chronic cadmium toxicity by glycine. Toxicology 1999b Feb 15; 132(2-3): 139-46.

Shukla, G.S., Srivastava, R.S., Chandra, S.V. Glutathione status and cadmium neurotoxicity: studies in discrete brain regions of growing rats. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 1988 Aug; 11(2): 229-35.

Sidhu, M., Sharma, M., Bhatia, M., Awasthi, Y.C., Nath, R. Effect of chronic cadmium exposure on glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase activities in rhesus monkey: the role of selenium. Toxicology 1993 Oct 25; 83(1-3): 203-13.

Skottova, N., Krecman, V., Simanek, V. Activities of silymarin and its flavonolignans upon low density lipoprotein oxidizability in vitro. Phytother. Res. 1999 Sep; 13(6): 535-7.

Smith, S.R., Jaffe, D.M., Skinner, M.A. Case report of metallic mercury injury. Pediatr. Emer. Care 1997; 13: 114-6.

Smith-Barbaro, P., Hanson, D., Reddy, B.S. Carcinogen binding to various types of dietary fiber. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1981 Aug; 67(2): 495-7.

Sonnenbichler, J., Goldberg, M., Hane, L., Madubunyi, I., Vogl, S., Zetl, I. Stimulatory effect of silibinin on the DNA synthesis in partially hepatectomized rat livers: non-response in hepatoma and other malign cell lines. Biochem. Pharmacol. 1986 Feb 1; 35(3): 538-41.

Sonnenbichler, J., Scalera, F., Sonnenbichler, I., Weyhenmeyer, R. Stimulatory effects of silibinin and silicristin from the milk thistle Silybum marianum on kidney cells. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1999 Sep; 290(3): 1375-83.

Stella, V., Postaire, E. Evaluation of the antiradical protector effect of multifermented milk serum with reiterated dosage in rats. C. R. Seances Soc. Biol. Fil. 1995; 189(6): 1191-7 (in French).

Tager, M., Dietzmann, J., Thiel, U., Hinrich Neumann, K., Ansorge, S. Restoration of the cellular thiol status of peritoneal macrophages from CAPD patients by the flavonoids silibinin and silymarin. Free Radic. Res. 2001 Feb; 34(2): 137-51.

Tandon, S.K., Singh, S., Dhawan, M. Preventive effect of vitamin E in cadmium intoxication. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 1992 Mar; 5(1): 39-45.

Tang, W., Sadovic, S., Shaikh, Z.A. Nephrotoxicity of cadmium-metallothionein: protection by zinc and role of glutathione. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1998 Aug; 151(2): 276-82.

Tjalkens, R.B., Valerio, L.G., Jr., Awasthi, Y.C., Petersen, D.R. Association of glutathione S-transferase isozyme-specific induction and lipid peroxidation in two inbred strains of mice subjected to chronic dietary iron overload. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 1998 Jul; 151(1): 174-81.

ToxFAQs™ for Aluminum. CAS 7429-90-5 1999 Jun. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ToxFAQs™ for Arsenic. CAS 7440-38-2 2001 Jul. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ToxFAQs™ for Cadmium. CAS 7440-43-9 1999 Jun. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ToxFAQs™ for Lead. CAS 7439-92-1 1999 Jun. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

ToxFAQs™ for Mercury. CAS 7439-97-6 1999 Apr. Atlanta, GA: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Tripathi, N., Flora, S.J. Effects of some thiol chelators on enzymatic activities in blood, liver and kidneys of acute arsenic (III) exposed mice. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 1998 Mar; 11(1): 38-45.

Turan, B., Delilbasi, E., Dalay, N., Sert, S., Afrasyap, L., Sayal, A. Serum selenium and glutathione-peroxidase activities and their interaction with toxic metals in dialysis and renal transplantation patients. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 1992 Apr-Jun; 33: 95-102.

USNLM/NIH. Drug Information: Deferoxamine (Systemic) 2001a. Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Laboratory of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (

USNLM/NIH. Drug Information: DMSA (Succimer Systemic) 2001b. Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Laboratory of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (

USNLM/NIH. Drug Information: EDTA (Edetate Disodium Systemic) 2001c. Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Laboratory of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (

USNLM/NIH. Drug Information: Penicillamine (Systemic) 2001d. Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Laboratory of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (

Valenzuela, A., Garrido, A. Biochemical bases of the pharmacological action of the flavonoid silymarin and of its structural isomer silibinin. Biol. Res. 1994; 27(2): 105-12.

Van Vleet, J.F., Boon, G.D., Ferrans, V.J. Induction of lesions of selenium-vitamin E deficiency in ducklings fed silver, copper, cobalt, tellurium, cadmium, or zinc: protection by selenium or vitamin E supplements. Am. J. Vet. Res. 1981 Jul; 42(7): 1206-17.

Vij, A.G., Satija, N.K., Flora, S.J. Lead induced disorders in hematopoietic and drug metabolizing enzyme system and their protection by ascorbic acid supplementation. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 1998 Mar; 11(1): 7-14.

Villamor, E., Fawzi, W.W. Vitamin A supplementation: implications for morbidity and mortality in children. J. Infect. Dis. 2000 Sep; 182(Suppl.1): S122-S133.

Vimy, M.J., Takahashi, Y., Lorscheider, F.L. Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings. Am. J. Physiol. 1990 Apr; 258(4, Pt. 2): R939-45.

Wellington, K., Jarvis, B. Silymarin: a review of its clinical properties in the management of hepatic disorders. BioDrugs 2001; 15(7): 465-89.

Wentz, P.W. (LabCorp, Burlington, NC). Chelation therapy: conventional treatments. In Advance Magazines/Administrators of the Laboratory 2000 May. King of Prussia, PA: Merion (

West, W.L., Knight, E.M., Edwards, C.H., Manning, M., Spurlock, B., James, H., Johnson, A.A., Oyemade, U.J., Cole, O.J., Westney, O.E. et al. Maternal low level lead and pregnancy outcomes. J. Nutr. 1994 Jun; 124(6, Suppl.): 981S-986S.

WHO. Aluminum. In Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Second Edition, Addendum to Volume 2, Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information 1998, pp. 3-13. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Willershausen-Zonnchen, B., Zimmermann, M., Defregger, A., Schramel, P., Hamm, G. Mercury concentration in the mouth mucosa of patients with amalgam fillings. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 1992 Nov 13; 117(46): 1743-7 (in German).

Wright, L.S., Kornguth, S.E., Oberley, T.D., Siegel, F.L. Effects of lead on glutathione S-transferase expression in rat kidney: a dose-response study. Toxicol. Sci. 1998 Dec; 46(2): 254-9.

Yamanaka, K., Hayashi, H., Tachikawa, M., Kato, K., Hasegawa, A., Oku, N., Okada, S. Metabolic methylation is a possible genotoxicity-enhancing process of inorganic arsenics. Mutat. Res. 1997 Nov 27; 394(1-3): 95-101.

Zayas, L. Ozuah, P. Mercury use in espiritismo: a survey of botanicas. Am. J. Public Health 1996; 86: 111-2.