Alberts MJ. Antithrombotic therapy for secondary stroke prevention. Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.). Dec 2011;17(6 2ndary Stroke Prevention):1255-1266.
Alberts MJ. Cerebral hemorrhage, warfarin, and intravenous tPA: the real risk is not treating. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Jun 27 2012;307(24):2637-2639.
Allen N, Berry JD, Ning H, et al. "Impact of blood pressure and blood pressure change during middle age on the remaining lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease: the cardiovascular lifetime risk pooling project." Circulation 125(2012): 37-44
Alli O, Holmes DR, Jr. Left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention. Current problems in cardiology. Oct 2012;37(10):405-441.
American Heart Association (AHA). “Fish and Omega-3 Fatty Acids.” Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/General/Fish-and-Omega-3-Fatty-Acids_UCM_303248_Article.jsp. Last updated September 7, 2010. Accessed July 27, 2012.
American Heart Association (AHA). “Types of Blood Pressure Medications.” Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/PreventionTreatmentofHighBloodPressure/Types-of-Blood-Pressure-Medications_UCM_303247_Article.jsp. Last updated June 7, 2012a. Accessed July 27, 2012.
American Heart Association (AHA). “Understanding Blood Pressure Readings.” Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/AboutHighBloodPressure/Understanding-Blood-Pressure-Readings_UCM_301764_Article.jsp. Last updated June 6, 2012b. Accessed July 27, 2012.
American Heart Association (AHA). Good vs. Bad Cholesterol. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/Good-vs-Bad-Cholesterol_UCM_305561_Article.jsp. Last updated Sep 5, 2012d. Accessed Sep 19, 2012.
Andreozzi GM. "Propionyl l-carnitine: intermittent claudication and peripheral arterial disease." Expert.Opin.Pharmacother. 10(2009): 2697-2707
Aw D, Sharma JC. Antiplatelets in secondary stroke prevention: should clopidogrel be the first choice? Postgraduate medical journal. Jan 2012;88(1035):34-37.
Awada A. [Primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke]. Le Journal medical libanais. The Lebanese medical journal. Oct-Dec 2011;59(4):213-219.
Bambauer KZ, Johnston SC, Bambauer DE, Zivin JA. Reasons why few patients with acute stroke receive tissue plasminogen activator. Archives of neurology. May 2006;63(5):661-664.
Bereczki D and Fekete I. "Vinpocetine for Acute Ischemic Stroke." Stroke (2008)
Bhakta BB. "Management of spasticity in stroke." Br.Med Bull. 56(2000): 476-485
Blum S, Luchsinger JA, Manly JJ, et al. "Memory after silent stroke: hippocampus and infarcts both matter." Neurology 78(2012): 38-46
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. MEDICATION GUIDE: PRADAXA. Copyright 2012. Available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022512s011mg.pdf Accessed 9/6/2012.
Bousser MG. Stroke prevention: an update. Frontiers of medicine. Mar 2012;6(1):22-34.
Brain Aneurysm Foundation (BAF). Understanding: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Available at: http://www.bafound.org/subarachnoid-hemorrhage. Last updated 2011. Accessed 9/20/2012.
Brisman JL, Song JK, Newell DW. Cerebral aneurysms. The New England journal of medicine. Aug 31 2006;355(9):928-939.
Bronner LL, Kanter DS, Manson JE. Primary prevention of stroke. The New England journal of medicine. Nov 23 1995;333(21):1392-1400.
Brott T, Bogousslavsky J. Treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The New England journal of medicine. Sep 7 2000;343(10):710-722.
Buchner NJ, Sanner BM, Borgel J, Rump LC. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment of mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea reduces cardiovascular risk. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. Dec 15 2007;176(12):1274-1280.
Casas JP, Shah T, Hingorani AD, et al. "C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease: a critical review." J.Intern.Med. 264(2008): 295-314.
Cassidy A, Rimm EB, O'Reilly EJ, et al. "Dietary flavonoids and risk of stroke in women." Stroke 43(2012): 946-951.
Choi HA, Ko SB, Chen H, et al. Acute effects of nimodipine on cerebral vasculature and brain metabolism in high grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Neurocritical care. Jun 2012;16(3):363-367.
Chuang SY, Bai CH, Chen WH, et al. "Fibrinogen independently predicts the development of ischemic stroke in a Taiwanese population: CVDFACTS study." Stroke 40(2009): 1578-1584.
Cocho D, Belvis R, Marti-Fabregas J, et al. Reasons for exclusion from thrombolytic therapy following acute ischemic stroke. Neurology. Feb 22 2005;64(4):719-720.
Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009;361:1139 – 1151.
Das AM, Khan M. Obstructive sleep apnea and stroke. Expert review of cardiovascular therapy. Apr 2012;10(4):525-535.
Das RR, Seshadri S, Beiser AS, et al. "Prevalence and correlates of silent cerebral infarcts in the Framingham offspring study." Stroke 39(2008): 2929-2935
Davel AP, Wenceslau CF, Akamine EH, Xavier FE, Couto GK, Oliveira HT, Rossoni LV. Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular and endocrine-metabolic diseases: an update. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.]. Sep 2011;44(9):920-932.
Davis SM, Donnan GA. Clinical practice. Secondary prevention after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The New England journal of medicine. May 17 2012;366(20):1914-1922.
Dedoussis GV, Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohoou C, et al. Effect of interaction between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T mutation on homocysteine concentrations in healthy adults: the ATTICA Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;80(4):849-54.
Dekanski D, Selakovic V, Piperski V, et al. "Protective effect of olive leaf extract on hippocampal injury induced by transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in Mongolian gerbils." Phytomedicine. 18(2011): 1137-1143
Del Turco S, Bianchini E, Bucalo R, Basta G, Bruno RM, Sicari R. [Endothelial dysfunction. An integrated overview of the physiopatologic and diagnostic aspects]. Recenti progressi in medicina. Mar 2012;103(3):109-118.
Del Zoppo GJ, Saver JL, Jauch EC, Adams HP Jr. Expansion of the time window for treatment of acute ischemic stroke with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator: a science advisory from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. Aug 2009;40(8):2945-2948.
Dey M, Jaffe J, Stadnik A, et al. "External ventricular drainage for intraventricular hemorrhage." Curr.Neurol.Neurosci.Rep. 12(2012): 24-33
Di Napoli M, Schwaninger M, Cappelli R, et al. “Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein Measurement for Assessing the Risk and Prognosis in Ischemic Stroke: A Statement for Health Care Professionals From the CRP Pooling Project Members.” Stroke. 36. 2005: 1316-1329.
Di Napoli NM, Papa F, Bocola V. "C-reactive protein in ischemic stroke: an independent prognostic factor." Stroke 32(2001): 917-924
Ding EL and Mozaffarian D. "Optimal dietary habits for the prevention of stroke." Semin.Neurol. 26(2006): 11-23.
Easton JD, Saver JL, Albers GW, et al. Definition and evaluation of transient ischemic attack: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this statement as an educational tool for neurologists. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. Jun 2009;40(6):2276-2293.
El SN and Karakaya S. "Olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves: potential beneficial effects on human health." Nutr.Rev. 67(2009): 632-638
Elkind MSV. "Inflammatory mechanisms of stroke." Stroke 41(2010): S3-S8.
Eriksson BI, Borris LC, Friedman RJ, et al. Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. The New England journal of medicine. Jun 26 2008;358(26):2765-2775.
Everett BM, Glynn RJ, MacFadyen JG, Ridker PM. Rosuvastatin in the prevention of stroke among men and women with elevated levels of C-reactive protein: justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER). Circulation. Jan 5 2010;121(1):143-150.
Felmeden DC, Spencer CG, Belgore FM, et al. "Endothelial damage and angiogenesis in hypertensive patients: relationship to cardiovascular risk factors and risk factor management." Am.J.Hypertens. 16(2003): 11-20.
Forbes CD. Secondary stroke prevention with low-dose aspirin, sustained release dipyridamole alone and in combination. ESPS Investigators. European Stroke Prevention Study. Thrombosis research. Sep 15 1998;92(1 Suppl 1):S1-6.
Francis J, Raghunathan S, Khanna P. The role of genetics in stroke. Postgraduate medical journal. Sep 2007;83(983):590-595.
Franco V, Oparil S,Carretero OA. "Hypertensive therapy: Part I." Circulation 109(2004): 2953-2958
Fujita M, Ohnishi K, Takaoka S, et al. "Antihypertensive effects of continuous oral administration of nattokinase and its fragments in spontaneously hypertensive rats." Biol.Pharm.Bull. 34(2011): 1696-1701
Fung TT, Rexrode KM, Mantzoros CS, et al. "Mediterranean diet and incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke in women." Circulation 119(2009): 1093-1100
Furie K and Inzucchi SE. "Diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and stroke." Curr.Neurol.Neurosci.Rep. 8(2008): 12-19
Gardener H, Wright CB, Gu Y, et al. "Mediterranean-style diet and risk of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death: the Northern Manhattan Study." Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 94(2011): 1458-1464
Geeganage CM, Diener HC, Algra A, et al. "Dual or mono antiplatelet therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." Stroke 43(2012): 1058-1066
Holmes DR, Reddy VY, Turi ZG, et al. "Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage versus warfarin therapy for prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomised non-inferiority trial." Lancet 374(2009): 534-542
Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2002 Oct 23-30;288(16):2015-22.
Houston MC. "The role of cellular micronutrient analysis, nutraceuticals, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease." Ther.Adv.Cardiovasc.Dis. 4(2010): 165-183
Huang T, Chen Y, Yang B, et al. "Meta-analysis of B vitamin supplementation on plasma homocysteine, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality." Clin.Nutr. (2012a)
Huang Y, Jing J, Zhao XQ, et al. "High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is a strong risk factor for death after acute ischemic stroke among Chinese." CNS.Neurosci.Ther. 18(2012b): 261-266
Huo Y, Qin X, Wang J, et al. "Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: new insight from a meta-analysis." Int.J Clin Pract. 66(2012): 544-551
Hyman DJ pavlik VN. Poor hypertension control: let’s stop blaming the patients. Cleve Clin J Med. 2002 Oct;69(10):793-9.
Jasuja R, Passam FH, Kennedy DR, et al. "Protein disulfide isomerase inhibitors constitute a new class of antithrombotic agents." J.Clin.Invest 122(2012): 2104-2113
Kaslow JE. Fibrinogen. Available at: http://www.drkaslow.com/html/fibrinogen.html. 2011.
Kastorini CM, Milionis HJ, Kantas D, et al. "Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Relation to Ischemic Stroke Nonfatal Events in Nonhypercholesterolemic and Hypercholesterolemic Participants: Results of a Case/Case-Control Study." Angiology (2011)
Kawano H, Yasue H, Kitagawa A, et al. "Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation improves endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in men." J.Clin.Endocrinol.Metab 88(2003): 3190-3195.
Khaw AV, Kessler C. [Stroke: epidemiology, risk factors, and genetics]. Hamostaseologie. Nov 2006;26(4):287-297.
Kim JH, Park IS, Park KB, Kang DH, Hwang SH. Intraarterial nimodipine infusion to treat symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society. Sep 2009;46(3):239-244.
Kim JY, Gum SN, Paik JK, et al. "Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial." Hypertens.Res. 31(2008): 1583-1588
Kojima G, Bell C, Abbott RD, et al. "Low Dietary Vitamin D Predicts 34-Year Incident Stroke: The Honolulu Heart Program." Stroke (2012)
Kokubo Y. "The mutual exacerbation of decreased kidney function and hypertension." J.Hypertens. 30(2012): 468-469
Kothari R, Sauerbeck L, Jauch E, Broderick J, Brott T, Khoury J, Liu T. Patients' awareness of stroke signs, symptoms, and risk factors. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. Oct 1997;28(10):1871-1875.
Kreft L, Fabjan N, Yasumoto K. Rutin content in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) food materials and products. Food Chemistry. 2006;98(3):508-512.
Lager KE, Wilson A, Khunti K, Mistri AK. Quality of secondary prevention measures in TIA patients: a retrospective cohort study. Postgraduate medical journal. Jun 2012;88(1040):305-311.
Lalancette-Hebert M, Julien C, Cordeau P, et al. "Accumulation of dietary docosahexaenoic acid in the brain attenuates acute immune response and development of postischemic neuronal damage." Stroke 42(2011): 2903-2909.
Lansberg MG, O'Donnell MJ, Khatri P, et al. "Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines." Chest 141(2012): e601S-e636S
Lata B, Trampczynska A, Paczesna J. Cultivar variation in apple peel and whole fruit phenolic composition. Scientia Horticulturae. 2009;121(2):176-181.
Lim JS, Kwon HM. Risk of "silent stroke" in patients older than 60 years: risk assessment and clinical perspectives. Clin Interv Aging. 2010 Sep 7;5:239-51.
Lip GY. "Can we predict stroke in atrial fibrillation?" Clin.Cardiol. 35 Suppl 1(2012): 21-27
Lopez-Minguez JR, Eldoayen-Gragera J, Gonzalez-Fernandez R, et al. Immediate and One-year Results in 35 Consecutive Patients After Closure of Left Atrial Appendage With the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug. Revista espanola de cardiologia. Aug 29 2012.
Lu KT, Chiou RY, Chen LG, et al. "Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol on cerebral ischemia-induced neuron loss mediated by free radical scavenging and cerebral blood flow elevation." J Agric.Food Chem. 54(2006): 3126-3131
Macdonald RL, Higashida RT, Keller E, et al. "Randomized trial of clazosentan in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage undergoing endovascular coiling." Stroke 43(2012): 1463-1469.
Macdonald RL, Higashida RT, Keller E, et al. Clazosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage undergoing surgical clipping: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial (CONSCIOUS-2). Lancet neurology. Jul 2011;10(7):618-625.
Mannucci PM. "Factor VIII inhibitors in previously treated hemophilic patients." J.Thromb.Haemost. 9(2011): 2328-2329.
Manolescu BN, Oprea E, Farcasanu IC, et al. "Homocysteine and vitamin therapy in stroke prevention and treatment: a review." Acta Biochim.Pol. 57(2010): 467-477.
Mansukhani MP, Bellolio MF, Kolla BP, Enduri S, Somers VK, Stead LG. Worse outcome after stroke in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: an observational cohort study. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. Sep-Oct 2011;20(5):401-405.
Masuda J, ka T, Notsu Y. Silent stroke: pathogenesis, genetic factors and clinical implications as a risk factor. Curr Opin Neurol. 2001 Feb;14(1):77-82.
Mayo Clinic. Aphasia. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/aphasia/DS00685. 5/8/2012c. Accessed 9/24/2012.
Mayo Clinic. Stroke. Last updated 7/3/2012b. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stroke/DS00150/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs Accessed 9/6/2012.
Merck Manual. Overview of Stroke. 11/2007. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain_spinal_cord_and_nerve_disorders/stroke_cva/overview_of_stroke.html Accessed 9/10/2012.
Miller J, Hartwell C, Lewandowski C. Stroke treatment using intravenous and intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator. Current treatment options in cardiovascular medicine. Jun 2012;14(3):273-283.
Mitrou PN, Kipnis V, Thiebaut AC, et al. "Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a US population: results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study." Arch.Intern.Med. 167(2007): 2461-2468
Mozaffarian D and Wu JH. "Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events." J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 58(2011): 2047-2067.
Murray JC, Kelly MA, Gorelick PB. Ticlopidine: a new antiplatelet agent for the secondary prevention of stroke. Clinical neuropharmacology. Feb 1994;17(1):23-31.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). "Stroke: Diagnosis and initial management of acute stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA).” Available at: http://publications.nice.org.uk/stroke-cg68. July 2008. Accessed July 27, 2012.
National Institute of Health (NIH). National Insitute on Aging. “Aging Hearts and Arteries: A Scientific Quest. Chapter 4: Blood Vessels and Aging: The Rest of the Journey.” Available at: http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/aging-hearts-and-arteries-scientific-quest/chapter-4-blood-vessels-and-aging-rest. Last updated November 22, 2011. Accessed July 27, 2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). “Spasticity and Paralysis.” Available at: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=SPAST. Last updated May 2010. Accessed July 27, 2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). “Stroke 101 Fact Sheet”. 2012e. Available at: http://www.stroke.org/site/DocServer/STROKE101_2009.pdf?docID=4541. Accessed 9/12/2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). “Stroke Facts. Recovery After Stroke: Thinking and Cognition.” Available at: http://www.stroke.org/site/DocServer/NSAFactSheet_Cognition.pdf?docID=986. Last updated June 2009b. Accessed July 27, 2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). “Types of Stroke.” Available at: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=TYPE. 2012b. Accessed July 27, 2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). “Vascular Dementia and Stroke.” Available at: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=VADEM. 2012c. Accessed July 27, 2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). “Warning Signs of Stroke.” Available at: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=SYMP. 2012a. Accessed July 27, 2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). “What is a TIA?” Available at: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=TIA. 2012d. Accessed 9/12/2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). 2009a “Stroke Facts. Hemorrhagic Stroke Fact Sheet.” Available at: http://www.stroke.org/site/DocServer/NSAFactSheet_HemorrhagicStroke_7-09.pdf?docID=3025. Accessed July 27, 2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). Aphasia. Available at: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=aphasia. Last updated August 2012g. Accessed September 21, 2012.
National Stroke Association (NSA). Pain. Availbale at: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=pain. Last updated August 2012f. Accessed September 21, 2012.
Norrving B. Dipyridamole with aspirin for secondary stroke prevention. Lancet. May 20 2006;367(9523):1638-1639.
Norrving B. Long-term prognosis after lacunar infarction. Lancet neurology. Apr 2003;2(4):238-245.
Pappa T, Vemmos K, Saltiki K, Mantzou E, Stamatelopoulos K, Alevizaki M. Severity and outcome of acute stroke in women: relation to adrenal sex steroid levels. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Jan 2012;61(1):84-91.
Park S and Lee BK. "Vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Koreans aged >/= 50 years: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey." Nutr.Res.Pract. 6(2012): 162-168
Parvizi J, Anderson SW, Martin CO, Damasio H, Damasio AR. Pathological laughter and crying: a link to the cerebellum. Brain : a journal of neurology. Sep 2001;124(Pt 9):1708-1719.
Patyar S, Prakash A, Modi M, et al. "Role of vinpocetine in cerebrovascular diseases." Pharmacol.Rep. 63(2011): 618-628
Pendlebury ST and Rothwell PM. "Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with pre-stroke and post-stroke dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Lancet Neurol. 8(2009): 1006-1018
Perrinjaquet-Moccetti T, Busjahn A, Schmidlin C, et al. "Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins." Phytother.Res. 22(2008): 1239-1242
PubMed Health. Stroke. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001740/. Reviewed 6/24/2011. Accessed 9/28/2012.
PubMed Health. Stroke. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001740/. Reviewed 6/24/2011. Accessed 9/28/2012.
Pyorala M, Miettinen H, Halonen P, Laakso M, Pyorala K. Insulin resistance syndrome predicts the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in healthy middle-aged men: the 22-year follow-up results of the Helsinki Policemen Study. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. Feb 2000;20(2):538-544.
Qureshi AI, Tuhrim S, Broderick JP, Batjer HH, Hondo H, Hanley DF. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2001 May 10;344(19):1450-60.
Rashid P, Leonardi-Bee J, Bath P. Blood pressure reduction and secondary prevention of stroke and other vascular events: a systematic review. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. Nov 2003;34(11):2741-2748.
Reiffel JA, McDonald A. Antiarrhythmic effects of omega-3 fatty acids. The American journal of cardiology. Aug 21 2006;98(4A):50i-60i.
Reinhart KM, Coleman CI, Teevan C, et al. "Effects of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis." Ann Pharmacother. 42(2008): 1766-1771
Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. Jan 3 2012;125(1):e2-e220.
Rosen H. "Dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate for pseudobulbar affect". Drugs Toxicity (Barc) 44(2008):661-8.
Roth JM. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center). Jul 2011;24(3):257-259.
Rothwell PM, Algra A,Amarenco P. "Medical treatment in acute and long-term secondary prevention after transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke." Lancet 377(2011): 1681-1692
Ru San T, Chan MY, Wee Siong T, Kok Foo T, Kheng Siang N, Lee SH, Chi Keong C. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: understanding the new oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Thrombosis. 2012;2012:108983.
Rundek T, Gardener H, Xu Q, et al. "Insulin resistance and risk of ischemic stroke among nondiabetic individuals from the northern Manhattan study." Arch.Neurol. 67(2010): 1195-1200
Sabri M, Ai J, Macdonald RL. Dissociation of vasospasm and secondary effects of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage by clazosentan. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. May 2011;42(5):1454-1460.
Sacco RL, Benjamin EJ, Broderick JP, et al. "American Heart Association Prevention Conference. IV. Prevention and Rehabilitation of Stroke. Risk factors." Stroke 28(1997): 1507-1517
Sacco RL, Benson RT, Kargman DE, et al. "High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ischemic stroke in the elderly: the Northern Manhattan Stroke Study." JAMA 285(2001): 2729-2735
Sahathevan R, Brodtmann A,Donnan GA. "Dementia, stroke, and vascular risk factors; a review." Int.J.Stroke 7(2012): 61-73
Saini M, Ikram K, Hilal S, Qiu A, Venketasubramanian N, Chen C. Silent Stroke: Not Listened to Rather Than Silent. Stroke. 2012 Sep 4.
Samieri C, Feart C, Proust-Lima C, et al. "Olive oil consumption, plasma oleic acid, and stroke incidence: the Three-City Study." Neurology 77(2011): 418-425
Saposnik G, Ray JG, Sheridan P, McQueen M, Lonn E. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and stroke risk, severity, and disability: additional findings from the HOPE 2 trial. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. Apr 2009;40(4):1365-1372.
Schellinger PD, Jansen O, Fiebach JB, Hacke W, Sartor K. A standardized MRI stroke protocol: comparison with CT in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. 1999 Apr;30(4):765-8.
Schubert GA, Schilling L, Thome C. Clazosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, prevents early hypoperfusion during the acute phase of massive experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: a laser Doppler flowmetry study in rats. Journal of neurosurgery. Dec 2008;109(6):1134-1140.
Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. The New England journal of medicine. Dec 10 2009;361(24):2342-2352.
Siguret V, Pautas E,Gouin-Thibault I. "Warfarin therapy: influence of pharmacogenetic and environmental factors on the anticoagulant response to warfarin." Vitam.Horm. 78(2008): 247-264
Singer P, Wirth M. Can n-3 PUFA reduce cardiac arrhythmias? Results of a clinical trial. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids. Sep 2004;71(3):153-159.
Slark J, Bentley P, Majeed A, Sharma P. Awareness of stroke symptomatology and cardiovascular risk factors amongst stroke survivors. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. Jul 2012;21(5):358-362.
Spence JD and Stampfer MJ. "Understanding the complexity of homocysteine lowering with vitamins: the potential role of subgroup analyses." JAMA 306(2011): 2610-2611
Steffel J, Braunwald E. Novel oral anticoagulants: focus on stroke prevention and treatment of venous thrombo-embolism. European Heart Journal. 2011;32(16):1968–1976.
Thethi I, Fareed J. Newer oral anticoagulants: a promising future. Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost. 2011;17(2):235.
van der Worp HB, van Gijn J. Clinical practice. Acute ischemic stroke. The New England journal of medicine. Aug 9 2007;357(6):572-579.
Vermeer SE, Longstreth WT, Jr., Koudstaal PJ. Silent brain infarcts: a systematic review. Lancet neurology. Jul 2007;6(7):611-619.
Wainwright MS, Mannix MK, Brown J, et al. "L-carnitine reduces brain injury after hypoxia-ischemia in newborn rats." Pediatr.Res. 54(2003): 688-695
Wang C, Harris WS, Chung M, et al. "n-3 Fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplements, but not alpha-linolenic acid, benefit cardiovascular disease outcomes in primary- and secondary-prevention studies: a systematic review." Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 84(2006): 5-17
Wang L, Jia J, Wu L. The relationship between cognitive impairment and cerebral blood flow changes after transient ischaemic attack. Neurol Res. 2013;35(6):580-5.
Washington State Dept. of Health. Stroke Education Toolkit. Available at: http://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/2900/StrokeEducationToolkit.pdf Pub. 9/2012. Accessed 9/24/2012.
Witham MD, Nadir MA, Struthers AD. Effect of vitamin D on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of hypertension. Oct 2009;27(10):1948-1954.
Woo D, Haverbusch M, Sekar P, et al. Effect of untreated hypertension on hemorrhagic stroke. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. Jul 2004;35(7):1703-1708.
Xian Y, Liang L, Smith EE, et al. Risks of intracranial hemorrhage among patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving warfarin and treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Jun 27 2012;307(24):2600-2608.
Yatsu FM, Shaltoni HM. Implications of silent strokes. Current atherosclerosis reports. Jul 2004;6(4):307-313.
Zerwic J, Hwang SY, Tucco L. Interpretation of symptoms and delay in seeking treatment by patients who have had a stroke: exploratory study. Heart & lung : the journal of critical care. Jan-Feb 2007;36(1):25-34.
Zhang R, Zhang H, Zhang Z, et al. "Neuroprotective Effects of Pre-Treament with l-Carnitine and Acetyl-l-Carnitine on Ischemic Injury In Vivo and In Vitro." Int.J.Mol.Sci. 13(2012): 2078-2090
Zhang W, Sun K, Chen J, et al. "High plasma homocysteine levels contribute to the risk of stroke recurrence and all-cause mortality in a large prospective stroke population." Clin.Sci.(Lond) 118(2010): 187-194.