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Adrenal Disorders
(Addison’s Disease & Cushing’s Syndrome)


Ahn YW. Adrenal exhaustion and fatigue due to chronic stress. J Korean Med Assoc. 2011;54(1):81-87.

Al-Aridi R, Abdelmannan D, Arafah BM. Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency: the added value of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate measurements. Endocr Pract. 2011;17(2):261-270.

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Arnaldi G, Angeli A, Atkinson AB, et al. Diagnosis and complications of Cushing's syndrome: a consensus statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(12):5593-5602.

Arun CP. Fight or flight, forbearance and fortitude: the spectrum of actions of the catecholamines and their cousins. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1018:137-140.

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Bangaru ML, Woodliff J, Raff H, et al. Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease. PLoS One. 2010;5(4):e9893.

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Bonfiglio JJ, Inda C, Refojo D, et al. The corticotropin-releasing hormone network and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: molecular and cellular mechanisms involved. Neuroendocrinology. 2011;94(1):12-20.

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Cajochen C, Kräuchi K, Wirz-Justice A. Role of melatonin in the regulation of human circadian rhythms and sleep. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15(4):432-437.

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Castillo V, Giacomini D, Páez-Pereda M, et al. Retinoic acid as a novel medical therapy for Cushing's disease in dogs. Endocrinology. 2006;147(9):4438-4444.

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Colao A, Petersenn S, Pasireotide B2305 Study Group. A 12-month phase 3 study of pasireotide in Cushing's disease. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(10):914-924.

Coles AJ, Thompson S, Cox AL, Curran S, Gurnell EM, Chatterjee VK. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in patients with Addison's disease has a bimodal effect on regulatory (CD4+CD25hi and CD4+FoxP3+) T cells. European journal of immunology. Dec 2005;35(12):3694-3703.

Davidson Z E, Walker KZ, Truby H. Clinical review: Do glucocorticosteroids alter vitamin D status? A systematic review with meta-analyses of observational studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(3):738-744.

Davis EA and Morris DJ. Medicinal uses of licorice through the millennia: the good and plenty of it. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1991;78(1-2):1-6.

Dominguez-Rodriguez, A. Melatonin in cardiovascular disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2012;21(11):1593-1596.

Duclos M, Gouarne C, Bonnemaison D, et al. Acute and chronic effects of exercise on tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94(3):869-875.

Farman N and Rafestin-Oblin ME. Multiple aspects of mineralocorticoid selectivity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;280(2):F181-F192.

Foley P and Kirschbaum C. Human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute psychosocial stress in laboratory settings. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010;35(1):91-96.

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Gebre-Medhin G, Husebye ES, Mallmin H, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement therapy in women with Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000;52(6):775-780.

Gilbert DG, Dibb WD, Plath LC, et al. Effects of nicotine and caffeine, separately and in combination, on EEG topography, mood, heart rate, cortisol, and vigilance. Psychophysiology. 2000;37(5):583-595.

Grossman AB. Clinical Review: The diagnosis and management of central hypoadrenalism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(11):4855-4863.

Gurnell EM, Hunt PJ, Curran SE, et al. Long-term DHEA replacement in primary adrenal insufficiency: a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(2):400-409.

Hahner S, Loeffler M, Bleicken B, et al. Epidemiology of adrenal crisis in chronic adrenal insufficiency: the need for new prevention strategies. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162(3):597-602.

Head KA and Kelly GS. Nutrients and botanicals for treatment of stress: adrenal fatigue, neurotransmitter imbalance, anxiety, and restless sleep. Altern Med Rev. 2009;14(2):114-140.

Hill EE, Zack E, Battaglini C, Viru M, et al. Exercise and circulating cortisol levels: the intensity threshold effect. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31(7):587-591.

Himsworth RL, Lewis JG, Rees LH, et al. A possible ACTH secreting tumour of the pituitary developing in a conventionally treated case of Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1978;9(2):131-139.

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Hunt PJ, Gurnell EM, Huppert FA, et al. Improvement in mood and fatigue after dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in Addison's disease in a randomized, double blind trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(12):4650-4656.

Jaroenporn S, Yamamoto T, Itabashi A, et al. Effects of pantothenic acid supplementation on adrenal steroid secretion from male rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(6):1205-1208.

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Kelly GS. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern Med Rev. 1999;4(4):249-265.

Kim AC, Barlaskar FM, Heaton JH, et al. In search of adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells. Endocr Rev. 2009;30(3):241-263.

Lennernas H, Skrtic S, Johannsson G, et al. Replacement therapy of oral hydrocortisone in adrenal insufficiency: the influence of gastrointestinal factors. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2008;4(6):749-758.

Lipworth BJ. Systemic adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroid therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(9):941-955.

Loose DS, Kan PB, Hirst MA, et al. Ketoconazole blocks adrenal steroidogenesis by inhibiting cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. J Clin Invest. 1983;71(5):1495-1499.

Lopez-Lluch G, Rodriguez-Aguilera JC, Santos-Ocana C, et al. Is coenzyme Q a key factor in aging? Mech Ageing Dev. 2010;131(4):225-235.

Løvås K, Loge JH, Husebye ES. Subjective health status in Norwegian patients with Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2002;56(5):581-588.

Luger A, Deuster PA, Kyle SB, et al. Acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to the stress of treadmill exercise. Physiologic adaptations to physical training. N Engl J Med. 1987;316(21):1309-1315.

Luken KK. Clinical manifestations and management of Addison's disease. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 1999;11(4):151-154.

Mancini A, Bianchi A, Fusco A, et al. Coenzyme Q10 evaluation in pituitary-adrenal axis disease: preliminary data. Biofactors. 2005;25(1-4):197-199.

Mancini A, Festa R, Raimondo S, et al. Hormonal influence on coenzyme Q10 Levels in blood plasma. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(12):9216–9225.

Mattke AF, Vender JR, Anstadt MR, et al. Pituitary apoplexy presenting as Addisonian crisis after coronary artery bypass grafting. Tex Heart Inst J. 2002;29(3):193-199.

McEwen, BS. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators: central role of the brain. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2006;8(4):367-381.

Meerlo P, Sgoifo A, Suchecki D. Restricted and disrupted sleep: effects on autonomic function, neuroendocrine stress systems and stress responsivity. Sleep Med Rev. 2008;12(3):197-210.

Methlie P, Husebye EE, Hustad S, et al. Grapefruit juice and licorice increase cortisol availability in patients with Addison's disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;165(5):761-769.

Miller GE, Chen E, Zhou ES. If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychol Bull. 2007;133(1): 25-45.

Molina PE. Neurobiology of the stress response: contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to the neuroimmune axis in traumatic injury. Shock. 2005;24(1):3-10.

National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD). Adrenal gland disorders. Updated July 28, 2010. Accessed November 2, 2012.

Neary N and Nieman L. Adrenal insufficiency – etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2010;17(3):217-223.

Newell-Price J and Grossman AB. Differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2007;51(8):1199-1206.

Nieman LK and Chanco Turner ML. Addison's disease. Clin Dermatol. 2006;24(4):276-280.

Omori K, Nomura K, Shimizu S, et al. Risk factors for adrenal crisis in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Endocr J. 2003;50(6):745-752.

Paez-Pereda M, Kovalovsky D, Hopfner U, et al. Retinoic acid prevents experimental Cushing syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2001;108(8):1123-1131.

Paez-Pereda M, Kovalovsky D, Hopfner U, et al. Retinoic acid prevents experimental Cushing syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2001;108(8):1123-1131.

Papanicolaou DA, Yanovski JA, Cutler GB Jr., et al. A single midnight serum cortisol measurement distinguishes Cushing's syndrome from pseudo-Cushing states. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998;83(4):1163-1167.

Pettit ML and DeBarr KA. Perceived stress, energy drink consumption, and academic performance among college students. J Am Coll Health. 2011;59(5):335-341.

Pivonello R, De Martino MC, De Leo M, et al. Cushing's Syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2008;37(1):135-149.

Pozza C, Graziadio C, Giannetta E, et al. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics. J Oncol. 2012;685213.

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PubMed Health PMH0004157. Cortisol level. US National Library of Medicine. A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. Updated December 11, 2011b..Accessed October 18, 2012.

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Rakel RE, Rakel DP. Adrenal Glands. Rakel: Textbook of Family Medicine, 8th ed.: Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier 2012: Accessed 11/13/2012.

Reini SA. Hypercortisolism as a potential concern for submariners. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2010;81(12):1114-1122.

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Schteingart DE. Drugs in the medical treatment of Cushing's syndrome. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2009;14(4):661-671.

Simon DP and Hammer GD. Adrenocortical stem and progenitor cells: implications for adrenocortical carcinoma. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;351(1):2-11.

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Soszynski P, Stowinska-Srzednicka J, Kasperlik-Zatuska A, Zgliczynski S. Decreased melatonin concentration in Cushing's syndrome. Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme. Dec 1989;21(12):673-674.

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