1. Piperhoff P et al. Deformation field morphometry reveals age-related structural differences between the brains of adults up to 51 years. J Neurosci. 2008 Jan 23;28(4):828-42.
2. Allen Js et al. Normal neuroanatomical variation due to age: the major lobes and a parcellation of the temporal region. Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Oct;26(9):1245-60; discussion 1279-82.
3. Fotenos AF et al. Normative estimates of cross-sectional and longitudinal brain volume decline in aging and AD. Neurology. 2005 Mar 22;64(6):1032-9.
4. Kruggel F. MRI-based volumetry of head compartments: normative values of healthy adults. Neuroimage. 2006 Mar;30(1):1-11.
5. Sowell ER et al. Mapping cortical change across the human life span. Nat Neurosci. 2003 Mar;6(3):309-15.
6. Hsu JL et al. Gender differences and age-related white matter changes of the human brain: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Neuroimage. 2008 Jan 15;39(2):566-77.
7. Sullivan EV and Pfefferbaum A. Diffusion tensor imaging and aging. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2006;30(6):749-61.
8. Magnotta VA et al. Quantitative in vivo measurement of gyrification in the human brain: changes associated with aging. Cereb Cortex. 1999 Mar;9(2):151-60.
9. Salat DH et al. Thinning of the cerebral cortex in aging. Cereb Cortex. 2004 Jul;14(7):721-30.
10. Sheline YI et al. Greater loss of 5-HT(2A) receptors in midlife than in late life. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Mar;159(3):430-5.
11. Erixon-Lindroth N et al. The role of the striatal dopamine transporter in cognitive aging. Psychiatry Res. 2005 Jan 30;138(1):1-12.
12. Volkow ND et al. Association between age-related decline in brain dopamine activity and impairment in frontal and cingulate metabolism. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Jan;157(1):75-80.
13. Del Arco A et al. Prefrontal cortex, caloric restriction and stress during aging: studies on dopamine and acetylcholine release, BDNF and working memory. Behav Brain Res. 2011 Jan 1;216(1):136-45.
14. Del Tredici K and Braak H. Neurofibrillary changes of the Alzheimer type in very elderly individuals: neither inevitable nor benign: Commentary on "No disease in the brain of a 115-year-old woman". Neurobiol Aging. 2008 Aug;29(8):1133-6.
15. Kadota T et al. Development and aging of the cerebrum: assessment with proton MR spectroscopy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001 Jan;22(1):128-35.
16. Lovell MA and Markesbery WR. Oxidative DNA damage in mild cognitive impairment and late-stage Alzheimer's disease. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(22):7497-504.
17. Butterfield DA and Sultana R. Redox proteomics identification of oxidatively modified brain proteins in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: insights into the progression of this dementing disorder. J Alzheimers Dis. 2007 Aug;12(1):61-72.
18. Mecocci P et al. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is increased in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 1994 Nov;36(5):747-51.
19. Schram MT et al. Systemic markers of inflammation and cognitive decline in old age. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 May;55(5):708-16.
20. Yaffe K et al. Endogenous sex hormone levels and risk of cognitive decline in an older biracial cohort. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Feb;28(2):171-8.
21. Rizzo MT and Leaver HA. Brain endothelial cell death: modes, signaling pathways, and relevance to neural development, homeostasis, and disease. Mol Neurobiol. 2010 Aug;42(1):52-63.
22. Debette S et al. Visceral fat is associated with lower brain volume in healthy middle-aged adults. Ann Neurol. 2010 Aug;68(2):136-44.
23. Scarmeas N et al. Mediterranean diet and mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol. 2009 Feb;66(2):216-25.
24. Stine-Morrow EA et al. The effects of an engaged lifestyle on cognitive vitality: a field experiment. Psychol Aging. 2008 Dec;23(4):778-86.
25. Atti AR et al. Cognitive Impairment after Age 60: Clinical and Social Correlates in the "Faenza Project" J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Aug 6.
26. Whitson E et al. Prevalence and patterns of comorbid cognitive impairment in low vision rehabilitation for macular disease. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2010 Mar-Apr;50(2):209-12.
27. Song F et al. Plasma biomarkers for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Rev. 2009 Oct;61(2):69-80.
28. Horie H et al. Membrane elasticity of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons decreases with aging. FEBS Lett. 1990 Aug 20;269(1):23-5.
29. Sato y and Endo T. Alteration of brain glycoproteins during aging. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2010 Jul;10 Suppl 1:S32-40.
30. Solsona-Sancho C and Blasi-Cabus JM. [Neuronal membrane and aging. Electrophysiological aspects] Rev Neurol. 1999 Dec 1-15;29(11):1083-8.
31. Hoekzema E at al. The effects of aging on dopaminergic neurotransmission: a microPET study of [11C]-raclopride binding in the aged rodent brain. Neuroscience. 2010 Dec 29;171(4):1283-6.
32. Backman L et al. Linking cognitive aging to alterations in dopamine neurotransmitter functioning: recent data and future avenues. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010 Apr;34(5):670-7.
33. Rot Dzh. [Changes in hormone and neurotransmitter action with aging] Fiziol Zh. 1990 Sep-Oct;36(5):82-9.
34. Chen S and Hillman DE. Dying-back of Purkinje cell dendrites with synapse loss in aging rats. J Neurocytol. 1999 Mar;28(3):187-96.
35. Sametsky EA et al. Synaptic strength and postsynaptically silent synapses through advanced aging in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Neurobiol Aging. 2010 May;31(5):813-25.
36. Rabbitt P et al. Frontal tests and models for cognitive ageing Eur J Cog Psy. 2001; 13(1-2):5-28.
37. Fjell A et al. Structural brain changes in aging: courses, causes and cognitive consequences. Revs Neurosci. 2010; 21(3):182-221.
38. Fjell A et al. Structural brain changes in aging: courses, causes and cognitive consequences. Revs Neurosci. 2010; 21(3):182-221.
39. Fjell A et al. Structural brain changes in aging: courses, causes and cognitive consequences. Revs Neurosci. 2010; 21(3):182-221.
40. Teuissen CE et al. Inflammation markers in relation to cognition in a healthy aging population. J Neuroimmunol. 2003 Jan;134(1-2):142-50.
41. Harris SE et al. A genetic association analysis of cognitive ability and cognitive ageing using 325 markers for 109 genes associated with oxidative stress or cognition. BMC Genet. 2007 Jul 2;8:43.
42. Okereke OI et al. Fasting plasma insulin, C-peptide and cognitive change in older men without diabetes: results from the Physicians' Health Study II. Neuroepidemiology. 2010;34(4):200-7.
43. Ryan J et al. Hormone levels and cognitive function in postmenopausal midlife women. Neurobiol Aging. 2010 Dec 14.
44. Muller M et al. Brain atrophy and cognition: Interaction with cerebrovascular pathology? Neurobiol Aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2011 May;32(5):885-93.
45. Lovell MA and Markesbery WR. Oxidative DNA damage in mild cognitive impairment and late-stage Alzheimer's disease. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(22):7497-504.
46. Mecocci P et al. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA shows marked age-dependent increases in human brain. Ann Neurol. 1993 Oct;34(4):609-16.
47. Lovell MA and Markesbery WR. Oxidative DNA damage in mild cognitive impairment and late-stage Alzheimer's disease. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(22):7497-504.
48. Butterfield DA and Sultana R. Redox proteomics identification of oxidatively modified brain proteins in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: insights into the progression of this dementing disorder. J Alzheimers Dis. 2007 Aug;12(1):61-72.
49. Mecocci P et al. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is increased in Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 1994 Nov;36(5):747-51.
50. Serra JA et al. Systemic Oxidative Stress Associated with the Neurological Diseases of Aging. Neurochem Res. 2009 Dec;34(12):2122-32.
51. Bermejo P et al. Peripheral levels of glutathione and protein oxidation as markers in the development of Alzheimer's disease from Mild Cognitive Impairment. Free Radic Res. 2008 Feb;42(2):162-70.
52. Di Domenico F et al. Oxidative damage in rat brain during aging: interplay between energy and metabolic key target proteins. Neurochem Res. 2010 Dec;35(12):2184-92.
53. Di Domenico F et al. Oxidative damage in rat brain during aging: interplay between energy and metabolic key target proteins. Neurochem Res. 2010 Dec;35(12):2184-92.
54. Hickey WF. Leukocyte traffic in the central nervous system: the participants and their roles. Semin Immunol. 1999 Apr;11(2):125-37.
55. Whitney NP et al. Inflammation mediates varying effects in neurogenesis: relevance to the pathogenesis of brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders. J Neurochem. 2009 Mar;108(6):1343-59.
56. Peng H et al. HIV-1-infected and/or immune-activated macrophage-secreted TNF-alpha affects human fetal cortical neural progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Glia. 2008 Jun;56(8):903-16.
57. Liu YP et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-18 modulate neuronal cell fate in embryonic neural progenitor culture. Brain Res. 2005 Aug 30;1054(2):152-8.
58. Monje ML et al. Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Science. 2003 Dec 5;302(5651):1760-5.
59. Vallieres L et al. Reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in adult transgenic mice with chronic astrocytic production of interleukin-6. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 15;22(2):486-92.
60. Marx CE et al. Cytokine effects on cortical neuron MAP-2 immunoreactivity: implications for schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2001 Nov 15;50(10):743-9.
61. Jarskog LF et al. Cytokine regulation of embryonic rat dopamine and serotonin neuronal survival in vitro. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1997 Oct;15(6):711-6.
62. Weaver Jd et al. Interleukin-6 and risk of cognitive decline: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Neurology. 2002 Aug 13;59(3):371-8.
63. Komulainen P et al. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein and cognitive function in elderly women. Age Ageing. 2007 Jul;36(4):443-8.
64. Schram MT et al. Systemic markers of inflammation and cognitive decline in old age. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 May;55(5):708-16.
65. Teuissen CE et al. Inflammation markers in relation to cognition in a healthy aging population. J Neuroimmunol. 2003 Jan;134(1-2):142-50.
66. Teunissen CE et al. [Serum markers in relation to cognitive functioning in an aging population: results of the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS)]. Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr. 2003 Feb;34(1):6-12.
67. Brydon L et al. Peripheral inflammation is associated with altered substantia nigra activity and psychomotor slowing in humans. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jun 1;63(11):1022-9.
68. Mani SK et al. Steroid hormone action in the brain: cross-talk between signalling pathways. J Neuroendocrinol. 2009 Mar;21(4):243-7.
69. Balthazart J et al. Is brain estradiol a hormone or a neurotransmitter? Trends Neurosci. 2006 May;29(5):241-9.
70. Yaffe K et al. Endogenous sex hormone levels and risk of cognitive decline in an older biracial cohort. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Feb;28(2):171-8.
71. Ryan J et al. Hormone levels and cognitive function in postmenopausal midlife women. Neurobiol Aging. 2010 Dec 14.
72. Marinho RM et al. Effects of estradiol on the cognitive function of postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2008 Jul-Aug;60(3-4):230-4.
73. Hogervorst E et al. Are optimal levels of testosterone associated with better cognitive function in healthy older women and men? Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Oct;1800(10):1145-52.
74. Moffat SD et al. Longitudinal assessment of serum free testosterone concentration predicts memory performance and cognitive status in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Nov;87(11):5001-7.
75. Barrett-Connor E et al. Endogenous sex hormones and cognitive function in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Oct;84(10):3681-5.
76. Cherrier MM et al. Testosterone supplementation improves spatial and verbal memory in healthy older men. Neurology. 2001 Jul 10;57(1):80-8.
77. Cherrier MM et al. Testosterone improves spatial memory in men with Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Neurology. 2005 Jun 28;64(12):2063-8.
78. Leranth C et al. Low CA1 spine synapse density is further reduced by castration in male non-human primates. Cereb Cortex. 2004 May;14(5):503-10.
79. Maclusky NJ et al. Androgen modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Neuroscience. 2006;138(3):957-65.
80. Moriguchi S et al. Sigma-1 receptor stimulation by dehydroepiandrosterone ameliorates cognitive impairment through activation of CaM kinase II, protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in olfactory bulbectomized mice. J Neurochem. 2011 Jun;117(5):879-91.
81. Sorwell KG et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone and age-related cognitive decline. Age (Dordr). 2010 Mar;32(1):61-7.
82. Valenti G et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cognitive function in the elderly: The InCHIANTI Study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009 Oct;32(9):766-72.
83. Davis SR et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels are associated with more favorable cognitive function in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Mar;93(3):801-8.
84. Yamada S et al. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on cognitive function and activities of daily living in older women with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2010 Oct;10(4):280-7.
85. Sliwinski A et al. Pregnenolone sulfate enhances long-term potentiation in CA1 in rat hippocampus slices through the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. J Neurosci Res. 2004 Dec 1;78(5):691-701.
86. Irwin RP et al. Steroid potentiation and inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated intracellular Ca++ responses: structure-activity studies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Nov;271(2):677-82.
87. Marx CE et al. Proof-of-concept trial with the neurosteroid pregnenolone targeting cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Jul;34(8):1885-903.
88. Marx CE et al. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone is reduced in prefrontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Dec 15;60(12):1287-94.
89. Chend ZX et al. Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate inhibits persistent sodium currents in rat medial prefrontal cortex via activation of sigma-1 receptors. Exp Neurol. 2008 Mar;210(1):128-36.
90. Sabeti J et al. Steroid pregnenolone sulfate enhances NMDA-receptor-independent long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA1 synapses: role for L-type calcium channels and sigma-receptors. Hippocampus. 2007;17(5):349-69.
91. Horn S and Heuer H. Thyroid hormone action during brain development: more questions than answers. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010 Feb 5;315(1-2):19-26.
92. Samuels MH. Cognitive function in untreated hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2008 Oct;15(5):429-33.
93 Ward MA et al. Low HDL Cholesterol is Associated with Lower Gray Matter Volume in Cognitively Healthy Adults. Front Aging Neurosci. 2010 Jul 15;2. pii: 29.
94. Atzmon G et al. Plasma HDL levels highly correlate with cognitive function in exceptional longevity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002 Nov;57(11):M712-5.
95. Alkhoury K et al. Chronic Homocysteine Exposure Upregulates Endothelial Adhesion Molecules and Mediates Leukocyte: Endothelial Cell Interactions under Flow Conditions. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011 Mar;41(3):429-35.
96. Kumar M et al. Homocysteine decreases blood flow to the brain due to vascular resistance in carotid artery. Neurochem Int. 2008 Dec;53(6-8):214-9.
97. Matte C et al. Acute homocysteine administration impairs memory consolidation on inhibitory avoidance task and decreases hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunocontent: prevention by folic acid treatment. Neuroscience. 2009 Nov 10;163(4):1039-45.
98. Siuda J et al. From mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease - influence of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate on cognition over time: results from one-year follow-up. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2009 Jul-Aug;43(4):321-9.
99. Seshadri S et al. Association of plasma total homocysteine levels with subclinical brain injury: cerebral volumes, white matter hyperintensity, and silent brain infarcts at volumetric magnetic resonance imaging in the Framingham Offspring Study. Arch Neurol. 2008 May;65(5):642-9.
100. Seshadri S et al. Association of plasma total homocysteine levels with subclinical brain injury: cerebral volumes, white matter hyperintensity, and silent brain infarcts at volumetric magnetic resonance imaging in the Framingham Offspring Study. Arch Neurol. 2008 May;65(5):642-9.
101. Saposnik G et al. Homocysteine-lowering therapy and stroke risk, severity, and disability: additional findings from the HOPE 2 trial. Stroke. 2009 Apr;40(4):1365-72.
102. Smith AD et al. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2010 Sep 8;5(9):e12244.
103. Farkas E et al. Similar ultrastructural breakdown of cerebrocortical capillaries in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and experimental hypertension. What is the functional link? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 Apr;903:72-82.
104. Bellew KM et al. Hypertension and the rate of cognitive decline in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2004 Oct-Dec;18(4):208-13.
105. Guo Z et al. Occurrence and progression of dementia in a community population aged 75 years and older: relationship of antihypertensive medication use. Arch Neurol. 1999 Aug;56(8):991-6.
106 Swan GE et al. Systolic blood pressure tracking over 25 to 30 years and cognitive performance in older adults. Stroke. 1998 Nov;29(11):2334-40.
107 Chobanian AV et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003 May 21;289(19):2560-72.
108. Pedsen BK et al. Role of exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in the regulation of energy homeostasis in mammals. Exp Physiol. 2009 Dec;94(12):1153-60.
109. McIntyre RS et al. Brain volume abnormalities and neurocognitive deficits in diabetes mellitus: points of pathophysiological ercommonality with mood disorders? Adv Ther. 2010 Feb;27(2):63-80.
110. Biessels GJ et al. Risk of dementia in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Lancet Neurol. 2006 Jan;5(1):64-74.
111. Baker LD et al. Insulin resistance and Alzheimer-like reductions in regional cerebral glucose metabolism for cognitively normal adults with prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes. Arch Neurol. 2011 Jan;68(1):51-7.
112. van Elderen et al. Progression of brain atrophy and cognitive decline in diabetes mellitus: a 3-year follow-up. Neurology. 2010 Sep 14;75(11):997-1002.
113. Okereke OI et al. Fasting plasma insulin, C-peptide and cognitive change in older men without diabetes: results from the Physicians' Health Study II. Neuroepidemiology. 2010;34(4):200-7.
114... Penicaud L. The neural feedback loop between the brain and adipose tissues. Endocr Dev. 2010;19:84-92.
115. Kerwin DR et al. Interaction between body mass index and central adiposity and risk of incident cognitive impairment and dementia: results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Jan;59(1):107-12.
116] Abbatecola AM et al. Adiposity predicts cognitive decline in older persons with diabetes: a 2-year follow-up. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 23;5(4):e10333.
117. Walther K et al. Structural brain differences and cognitive functioning related to body mass index in older females. Hum Brain Mapp. 2010 Jul;31(7):1052-64.
118. Bond DJ et al. The Association of Elevated Body Mass Index with Reduced Brain Volumes in First-Episode Mania. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Apr 15.
119. Debette S et al. Visceral fat is associated with lower brain volume in healthy middle-aged adults. Ann Neurol. 2010 Aug;68(2):136-44.
120. Ho AJ et al. Obesity is linked with lower brain volume in 700 AD and MCI patients. Neurobiol Aging. 2010 Aug;31(8):1326-39.
121. Waldstein SR et al. Interactive relations of central versus total obesity and blood pressure to cognitive function. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Jan;30(1):201-7.
122. Whitmer RA et al. Central obesity and increased risk of dementia more than three decades later. Neurology. 2008 Sep 30;71(14):1057-64.
123. Conroy RM et al. Boredom-proneness, loneliness, social engagement and depression and their association with cognitive function in older people: a population study. Psychol Health Med. 2010 Aug;15(4):463-73.
124. Green AF et al. Influence of social network characteristics on cognition and functional status with aging. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008 Sep;23(9):972-8.
125. Peters JL et al. Interaction of stress, lead burden, and age on cognition in older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Apr;118(4):505-10.
126. Ansari TL et al. The neural correlates of cognitive effort in anxiety: Effects on processing efficiency. Biol Psychol. 2011 Mar;86(3):337-48.
127. Gallagher D et al. Anxiety and behavioural disturbance as markers of prodromal Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 Feb;26(2):166-72.
128. Potvin O et al. Anxiety disorders, depressive episodes and cognitive impairment no dementia in community-dwelling older men and women. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Dec 7.
129. Sandstrom A et al. Cognitive deficits in relation to personality type and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction in women with stress-related exhaustion. Scand J Psychol. 2011 Feb;52(1):71-82.
130. Peters JL et al. Interaction of stress, lead burden, and age on cognition in older men: the VA Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Apr;118(4):505-10.
131. Hedges DW and Woon FL. Premorbid brain volume estimates and reduced total brain volume in adults exposed to trauma with or without posttraumatic stress disorder: a meta-analysis. Cogn Behav Neurol. 2010 Jun;23(2):124-9.
132. Felmingham K et al. Duration of posttraumatic stress disorder predicts hippocampal grey matter loss. Neuroreport. 2009 Oct 28;20(16):1402-6.
133. Newberg AB et al. Meditation effects on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow in subjects with memory loss: a preliminary study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20(2):517-26.
134. Panza F et al. Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: possible continuum? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;18(2):98-116.
135. Butters MA et al. The nature and determinants of neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Jun;61(6):587-95.
136. Alexopoulos GS et al. The course of geriatric depression with "reversible dementia": a controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 1993 Nov;150(11):1693-9.
137. Crocco EA et al. How late-life depression affects cognition: neural mechanisms. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2010 Feb;12(1):34-8.
138. van Tol MJ et al. Regional brain volume in depression and anxiety disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;67(10):1002-11.
139. Wang HX et al. Late-life engagement in social and leisure activities is associated with a decreased risk of dementia: a longitudinal study from the Kungsholmen project. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Jun 15;155(12):1081-7.
140. Crooks VC et al. Social network, cognitive function, and dementia incidence among elderly women. Am J Public Health. 2008 Jul;98(7):1221-7.
141. Bassuk SS et al. Social disengagement and incident cognitive decline in community-dwelling elderly persons. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Aug 3;131(3):165-73.
142. Crooks VC et al. Social network, cognitive function, and dementia incidence among elderly women. Am J Public Health. 2008 Jul;98(7):1221-7.
143. Karp A et al. Mentally stimulating activities at work during midlife and dementia risk after age 75: follow-up study from the Kungsholmen Project. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009 Mar;17(3):227-36.
<144. Freidl W et al. Mini mental state examination: influence of sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral factors and vascular risk factors. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996 Jan;49(1):73-8.
145. Atti AR et al. Cognitive Impairment after Age 60: Clinical and Social Correlates in the "Faenza Project" J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;21(4):1325-34.
146. Ertel KA et al . Effects of social integration on preserving memory function in a nationally representative US elderly population. Am J Public Health. 2008 Jul;98(7):1215-20.
147. Azevedo FA et al. Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain. J Comp Neurol. 2009 Apr 10;513(5):532-41.
.148. Gage FH. Neurogenesis in the adult brain. J Neurosci 2002. 22:612–613.
149. Zoladz JA et al. The effect of physical activity on the brain derived neurotrophic factor: from animal to human studies. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 Oct;61(5):533-41.
150. Boyke J et al. Training-induced brain structure changes in the elderly. J Neurosci. 2008 Jul 9;28(28):7031-5.
151. Bekinschtein P et al. BDNF is essential to promote persistence of long-term memory storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 19;105(7):2711-6.
152. Yamada K and Nabeshima T. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB signaling in memory processes. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Apr;91(4):267-70.
153. Huang EJ et al. Neurotrophins: roles in neuronal development and function. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2001;24:677-736.
154. Zuccato C and Cattaneo E. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neurodegenerative diseases. Nat Rev Neurol. 2009 Jun;5(6):311-22.
155 Arancio O and Chao MV. Neurotrophins, synaptic plasticity and dementia. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2007 Jun;17(3):325-30.
156. Cunha C et al. A simple role for BDNF in learning and memory? Front Mol Neurosci. 2010 Feb 9;3:1.
157. Liu Y et al. Differential effects of treadmill running and wheel running on spatial or aversive learning and memory: roles of amygdalar brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synaptotagmin I. J Physiol. 2009 Jul 1;587(Pt 13):3221-31.
158. Cotman CW and Berchtold NC. Exercise: a behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends Neurosci. 2002 Jun;25(6):295-301.
159. Ferris LT et al. The effect of acute exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive function. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Apr;39(4):728-34.
160. Yarrow JF et al. Training augments resistance exercise induced elevation of circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Neurosci Lett. 2010 Jul 26;479(2):161-5.
161. Gold SM et al. Basal serum levels and reactivity of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor to standardized acute exercise in multiple sclerosis and controls. J Neuroimmunol. 2003 May;138(1-2):99-105.
162.Tang SW et al. Influence of exercise on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in healthy human subjects. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Jan 24;431(1):62-5.
163. Winter B et al. High impact running improves learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007 May;87(4):597-609.
164. Winter B et al. High impact running improves learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2007 May;87(4):597-609.
165. Liu Y et al. Differential effects of treadmill running and wheel running on spatial or aversive learning and memory: roles of amygdalar brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synaptotagmin I. J Physiol. 2009 Jul 1;587(Pt 13):3221-31.
166. Oliff HS et al. Exercise-induced regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcripts in the rat hippocampus. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998 Oct 30;61(1-2):147-53.
167. Sofi F et al. Physical activity and risk of cognitive decline: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Intern Med. 2011 Jan;269(1):107-17.
168. Forstmann BU et al. Striatum and pre-SMA facilitate decision-making under time pressure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Nov 11;105(45):17538-42.
169. Bedard M and Weaver B. Cognitive training for older drivers can reduce the frequency of involvement in motor vehicle collisions. Evid Based Ment Health. 2011 May;14(2):52.
170. Rami L et al. [Cognitive reserve questionnaire. Scores obtained in a healthy elderly population and in one with Alzheimer's disease]. Rev Neurol. 2011 Feb 16;52(4):195-201.
171. Serra L et al. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Cognitive Reserve in Alzheimer Disease. Rejuvenation Res. 2011 Jan 4.
172. Smyth KA et al. Worker functions and traits associated with occupations and the development of AD. Neurology. 2004 Aug 10;63(3):498-503.
173. Tucker AM and Stern Y. Cognitive Reserve in Aging. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2011 Jan 11.
174. Zelinski EM et al. Improvement in memory with plasticity-based adaptive cognitive training: results of the 3-month follow-up. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Feb;59(2):258-65.
175. Kwok V et al. Learning new color names produces rapid increase in gray matter in the intact adult human cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 19;108(16):6686-8.2011
176. Archer HA et al. Knight's move thinking? Mild cognitive impairment in a chess player. Neurocase. 2005 Feb;11(1):26-31.
177. Craik FI et al. Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease: bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve. Neurology. 2010 Nov 9;75(19):1726-9.
178. Mozolic JL et al. A cognitive training intervention increases resting cerebral blood flow in healthy older adults. Front Hum Neurosci. 2010 Mar 12;4:16.
179. Daviglus ML et al. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference statement: preventing alzheimer disease and cognitive decline. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Aug 3;153(3):176-81.
180. Malyka AG et al. Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders. Drugs. 2010 Feb 12;70(3):287-312.
181. Muller WE et al. Effects of piracetam on membrane fluidity in the aged mouse, rat, and human brain. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jan 24;53(2):135-40.
182. Waegemans T et al. Clinical efficacy of piracetam in cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2002;13(4):217-24.
183. Nagasawa H, Kogure K, et al. Effects of co-dergocrine mesylate (Hydergine) in multi-infarct dementia as evaluated by positron emission tomography. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1990 Nov;162(3):225–33.
184. Imperato A et al. Co-dergocrine (Hydergine) regulates striatal and hippocampal acetylcholine release through D2 receptors. Neuroreport. 1994 Feb 24;5(6):674-6.
185. Amenta F et al. Effect of long term hydergine treatment on the age-dependent loss of mossy fibers and of granule cells in the rat hippocampus. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1990 May-Jun;10(3):287-96.
186. Schneider LS and Olin JT. Overview of clinical trials of hydergine in dementia. Arch Neurol. 1994 Aug;51(8):787-98.
187. Engberg G et al. Deprenyl (selegiline), a selective MAO-B inhibitor with active metabolites; effects on locomotor activity, dopaminergic neurotransmission and firing rate of nigral dopamine neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Nov;259(2):841-7.
188. Subramanian MV and James TJ. Supplementation of deprenyl attenuates age associated alterations in rat cerebellum. Mol Biol Rep. 2010 Dec;37(8):3653-61.
189. [No authors listed] A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of deprenyl and thioctic acid in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cognitive impairment. Dana Consortium on the Therapy of HIV Dementia and Related Cognitive Disorders. Neurology. 1998 Mar;50(3):645-51.
190. Georgiev VP et al. Participation of adrenergic mechanisms in brain acetylcholine release produced by centrophenoxine. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1979;5(4):21-6.
191. Marcer D and Hopkins SM. The differential effects of meclofenoxate on memory loss in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1977 May;6(2):123-31.
192. Fulop T Jr. et al. Effects of centrophenoxine on body composition and some biochemical parameters of demented elderly people as revealed in a double-blind clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1990 May-Jun;10(3):239-51.
193. Verma R and Nehru B. Effect of centrophenoxine against rotenone-induced oxidative stress in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Neurochem Int. 2009 Nov;55(6):369-75.
194. Eskelinen MH at el. Fat intake at midlife and cognitive impairment later in life: a population-based CAIDE study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008 Jul;23(7):741-7.
195. Benton D. et al. The influence of the glycaemic load of breakfast on the behaviour of children in school. Physiol Behav. 2007 Nov 23;92(4):717-24.
196. Papanikolaou Y et al. Better cognitive performance following a low-glycaemic-index compared with a high-glycaemic-index carbohydrate meal in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2006 May;49(5):855-62.
197. Witte AV et al. Caloric restriction improves memory in elderly humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 27;106(4):1255-60.
198. Kemnitz JW. Calorie restriction and aging in nonhuman primates. ILAR J. 2011 Feb 8;52(1):66-77.
199. Smith PJ et al. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, exercise, and caloric restriction on neurocognition in overweight adults with high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2010 Jun;55(6):1331-8.
200. Qiu G et al. Dietary restriction and brain health. Neurosci Bull. 2010 Feb;26(1):55-65.
201. Willett WC et al. Health implications of Mediterranean diets in light of contemporary knowledge. 1. Plant foods and dairy products. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jun;61(6 Suppl):1407S-1415S.
202. Willett WC et al. Health implications of Mediterranean diets in light of contemporary knowledge. 1. Plant foods and dairy products. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jun;61(6 Suppl):1407S-1415S.
203. Tzima N et al. Mediterranean diet and insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and blood pressure levels, in overweight and obese people; the Attica study. Lipids Health Dis. 2007 Sep 19;6:22.
204. Bos MB et al. Effect of a high monounsaturated fatty acids diet and a Mediterranean diet on serum lipids and insulin sensitivity in adults with mild abdominal obesity. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Oct;20(8):591-8.
205. Kokkinos P et al. Dietary influences on blood pressure: the effect of the Mediterranean diet on the prevalence of hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2005 Mar;7(3):165-70; quiz 171-2.
206. Sofi F et al. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008 Sep 11;337:a1344. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1344.
207. Kastorini CM et al. The effect of mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome and its components a meta-analysis of 50 studies and 534,906 individuals. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Mar 15;57(11):1299-313.
208. Trichopoulou A et al. Diet and survival of elderly Greeks: a link to the past. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jun;61(6 Suppl):1346S-1350S.
209. Trichopoulou A et al. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 26;348(26):2599-608.
210. Solfrizzi V et al. Lifestyle-related factors in predementia and dementia syndromes. Expert Rev Neurother. 2008 Jan;8(1):133-58.
211. Feart C et al. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Jan;13(1):14-8.
212. Scarmeas N et al. Mediterranean diet and mild cognitive impairment. Arch Neurol. 2009 Feb;66(2):216-25.
213. Scarmeas N et al. Physical activity, diet, and risk of Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2009 Aug 12;302(6):627-37.
214. McMillan L et al. Behavioural effects of a 10-day Mediterranean diet. Results from a pilot study evaluating mood and cognitive performance. Appetite. 2011 Feb;56(1):143-7.
215. Roberts RO et al. Vegetables, unsaturated fats, moderate alcohol intake, and mild cognitive impairment. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;29(5):413-23.
216. Anstey KJ et al. Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2009 Jul;17(7):542-55.
217. Virtaa JJ et al. Midlife alcohol consumption and later risk of cognitive impairment: a twin follow-up study. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Jan 1;22(3):939-48.
218. Ho L et al. Heterogeneity in red wine polyphenolic contents differentially influences Alzheimer's disease-type neuropathology and cognitive deterioration. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;16(1):59-72.
219. Montilla P et al. Protective effect of red wine on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in the brain and kidney induced by feeding high cholesterol in rats. Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;25(1):146-53.
220. Arntzen KA et al. Moderate wine consumption is associated with better cognitive test results: a 7 year follow up of 5033 subjects in the Tromsø Study. Acta Neurol Scand Suppl. 2010;(190):23-9.
221.] Nurk E et al. Intake of flavonoid-rich wine, tea, and chocolate by elderly men and women is associated with better cognitive test performance. J Nutr. 2009 Jan;139(1):120-7.
222. Chung BH et al. Alcohol-mediated enhancement of postprandial lipemia: a contributing factor to an increase in plasma HDL and a decrease in risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3):391-9.
223. Schafer C et al. Beyond HDL-cholesterol increase: phospholipid enrichment and shift from HDL3 to HDL2 in alcohol consumers. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jul;48(7):1550-8.
224. Kralova Lesna I et al. May alcohol-induced increase of HDL be considered as atheroprotective? Physiol Res. 2010;59(3):407-13.
225. Collins MA et al. Alcohol in moderation, cardioprotection, and neuroprotection: epidemiological considerations and mechanistic studies. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Feb;33(2):206-19.
226. Bakuradze T et al. Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: Results from an intervention study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011 May;55(5):793-7.
227. Moura-Nunes N et al. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after acute coffee intake is not associated with endogenous non-enzymatic antioxidant components. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009 Sep 11:1-9.
228. Cho ES et al. Attenuation of oxidative neuronal cell death by coffee phenolic phytochemicals. Mutat Res. 2009 Feb 10;661(1-2):18-24.
229. Hwang YP and Jeong HG. The coffee diterpene kahweol induces heme oxygenase-1 via the PI3K and p38/Nrf2 pathway to protect human dopaminergic neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine-derived oxidative stress. FEBS Lett. 2008 Jul 23;582(17):2655-62.
230. Cao C et al. Caffeine Synergizes with Another Coffee Component to Increase Plasma GCSF: Linkage to Cognitive Benefits in Alzheimer's Mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011 Mar 18.
231. Van Gelder BM et al. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;61(2):226-32.
232. Corley J et al. Caffeine consumption and cognitive function at age 70: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. Psychosom Med. 2010 Feb;72(2):206-14.
233. Nebes RD et al. Cognitive slowing associated with elevated serum anticholinergic activity in older individuals is decreased by caffeine use. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011 Feb;19(2):169-75.
234. Santos C et al. Caffeine intake is associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline: a cohort study from Portugal. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S175-85.
235. Ritchie Ke t al. Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter lesions in the elderly: establishing causality from epidemiological evidence. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S161-6.
236. Foskett A et al. Caffeine enhances cognitive function and skill performance during simulated soccer activity. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2009 Aug;19(4):410-23.
237. Chen X et al. Caffeine protects against disruptions of the blood-brain barrier in animal models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S127-41.
238. Cao C et al. Caffeine suppresses amyloid-beta levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17(3):681-97.
239. Arendash GW et al. Caffeine reverses cognitive impairment and decreases brain amyloid-beta levels in aged Alzheimer's disease mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;17(3):661-80.
240. Arab L. Epidemiologic evidence on coffee and cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(3):271-83.
241. Goto A et al. Coffee and caffeine consumption in relation to sex hormone-binding globulin and risk of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women. Diabetes. 2011 Jan;60(1):269-75.
242. Renouf M et al. Nondairy creamer, but not milk, delays the appearance of coffee phenolic acid equivalents in human plasma. J Nutr. 2010 Feb;140(2):259-63.
243. Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary Aspects of Diet: The Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio and the Brain. Mol Neurobiol. 2011 Jan 29.
244. Davis PF et al. Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status. Nutr Neurosci. 2010 Aug;13(4):161-9.
245. Liu C and Cai WX. [Progress on relationship between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and violent-aggressive behavior]. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Dec;26(6):454-9.
246. Heinrichs SC. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for optimizing neuronal structure and function. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Apr;54(4):447-56.
247. Simopoulos AP. Evolutionary aspects of the dietary omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio: medical implications. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2009;100:1-21.
248. Chiu CC et al. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids monotherapy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Aug 1;32(6):1538-44.
249. Gao Q et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements and cognitive decline: Singapore Longitudinal Aging Studies. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15(1):32-5.
250. Dangour AD et al. Fish consumption and cognitive function among older people in the UK: baseline data from the OPAL study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2009 Mar;13(3):198-202.
251. Nurke E et al. Cognitive performance among the elderly and dietary fish intake: the Hordaland Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1470-8.
252. Muldoon MF et al. Serum phospholipid docosahexaenonic acid is associated with cognitive functioning during middle adulthood. J Nutr. 2010 Apr;140(4):848-53.
253. Willis LM et al. Recent advances in berry supplementation and age-related cognitive decline. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Jan;12(1):91-4.
254. Kalt W et al. Identification of anthocyanins in the liver, eye, and brain of blueberry-fed pigs. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Feb 13;56(3):705-12.
255. Talavera S et al. Anthocyanin metabolism in rats and their distribution to digestive area, kidney, and brain. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 May 18;53(10):3902-8.
256. Mandel S et al. Green tea catechins as brain-permeable, non toxic iron chelators to "iron out iron" from the brain.J Neural Transm Suppl. 2006;(71):249-57.
257. Mokni M et al. Effect of resveratrol on antioxidant enzyme activities in the brain of healthy rat. Neurochem Res. 2007 Jun;32(6):981-7.
258. Papandreou Ma et al. Effect of a polyphenol-rich wild blueberry extract on cognitive performance of mice, brain antioxidant markers and acetylcholinesterase activity. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Mar 17;198(2):352-8.
259. Casadesus G. et al. Modulation of hippocampal plasticity and cognitive behavior by short-term blueberry supplementation in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci. 2004 Oct-Dec;7(5-6):309-16.
260. Milbury PE and Kalt W. Xenobiotic metabolism and berry flavonoid transport across the blood-brain barrier. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 14;58(7):3950-6.
261. Krikorian R et al. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 14;58(7):3996-4000.
262. Joseph JA et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplementation. J Neurosci. 1999 Sep 15;19(18):8114-21.
263. Malin DH et al. Short-term blueberry-enriched diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aging rats. Nutrition. 2011 Mar;27(3):338-42.
264. Stull AJ et al. Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women. J Nutr. 2010 Oct;140(10):1764-8.
265. Del Bo’ C et al. The temporal effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)-enriched diet on vasomotor tone in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Aug 14.
266. Ng TP et al. Tea consumption and cognitive impairment and decline in older Chinese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jul;88(1):224-31.
267. Feng L et al. Cognitive function and tea consumption in community dwelling older Chinese in Singapore. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010 Jun;14(6):433-8.
268. Lee JW et al. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits beta-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction through modification of secretase activity via inhibition of ERK and NF-kappaB pathways in mice. J Nutr. 2009 Oct;139(10):1987-93.
269. Mandel SA et al. Simultaneous manipulation of multiple brain targets by green tea catechins: a potential neuroprotective strategy for Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2008 Winter;14(4):352-65.
270. Unno K et al. Daily ingestion of green tea catechins from adulthood suppressed brain dysfunction in aged mice. Biofactors. 2008;34(4):263-71.
271. Park SK et al. A Combination of Green Tea Extract and l-Theanine Improves Memory and Attention in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. J Med Food. 2011 Apr;14(4):334-43.
272. Vertes RP. Hippocampal theta rhythm: a tag for short-term memory. Hippocampus. 2005;15(7):923-35.
273. Buzsaki G. Theta oscillations in the hippocampus. Neuron. 2002 Jan 31;33(3):325-40.
274. Xu Y et al. Green tea polyphenols inhibit cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via modulating oxidative stress. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Aug;21(8):741-8.
275. Chen WQ et al. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols on cognitive impairments induced by psychological stress in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Aug 24;202(1):71-6.
276. Unno K et al. Daily ingestion of green tea catechins from adulthood suppressed brain dysfunction in aged mice. Biofactors. 2008;34(4):263-71.
277. Kim TI et al. l-Theanine, an amino acid in green tea, attenuates beta-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity: reduction in oxidative damage and inactivation of ERK/p38 kinase and NF-kappaB pathways. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Dec 1;47(11):1601-10.
278. Rezai-Zadeh K et al. Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces beta-amyloid mediated cognitive impairment and modulates tau pathology in Alzheimer transgenic mice. Brain Res. 2008 Jun 12;1214:177-87.
279. Haque AM et al. Green tea catechins prevent cognitive deficits caused by Abeta1-40 in rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2008 Sep;19(9):619-26.
280. Hininger-Favier I e tal. Green tea extract decreases oxidative stress and improves insulin sensitivity in an animal model of insulin resistance, the fructose-fed rat. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Aug;28(4):355-61.
281. Alexopoulos N et al. The acute effect of green tea consumption on endothelial function in healthy individuals. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Jun;15(3):300-5.
282. Basu A et al. Green tea supplementation affects body weight, lipids, and lipid peroxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Feb;29(1):31-40.
283. Agarwall B and Baur JA. Resveratrol and life extension. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011 Jan;1215:138-43.
284. Harada N et al. Resveratrol improves cognitive function in mice by increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-I in the hippocampus. J Nutr Biochem. 2011 Feb 4.
285. Rahvar M et al. Effect of oral resveratrol on the BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus of the rat brain. Neurochem Res. 2011 May;36(5):761-5.
286. Chiavaroli A et al. Resveratrol inhibits isoprostane production in young and aged rat brain. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2010 Oct-Dec;24(4):441-6.
287. Zhang F et al. Anti-inflammatory activities of resveratrol in the brain: role of resveratrol in microglial activation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 25;636(1-3):1-7.
288. Lin YL et al. Resveratrol protects against oxidized LDL-induced breakage of the blood-brain barrier by lessening disruption of tight junctions and apoptotic insults to mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cells. J Nutr. 2010 Dec;140(12):2187-92.
289. Li H et al. Neuroprotective effects of resveratrol on ischemic injury mediated by improving brain energy metabolism and alleviating oxidative stress in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2011 Feb-Mar;60(2-3):252-8.
290. Oomen CA et al. Resveratrol preserves cerebrovascular density and cognitive function in aging mice. Front Aging Neurosci. 2009 Dec 9;1:4.
291. Singleton RH et al. Resveratrol attenuates behavioral impairments and reduces cortical and hippocampal loss in a rat controlled cortical impact model of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2010 Jun;27(6):1091-9.
292. Kennedy DO et al. Effects of resveratrol on cerebral blood flow variables and cognitive performance in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jun;91(6):1590-7.
293. Dal-Pan A et al. Cognitive performances are selectively enhanced during chronic caloric restriction or resveratrol supplementation in a primate. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 31;6(1):e16581.
294. Selhub J et al. B vitamins and the aging brain. Nutr Rev. 2010 Dec;68 Suppl 2:S112-8.
295. Tucker KL et al. High homocysteine and low B vitamins predict cognitive decline in aging men: the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):627-35.
296. Haan MN et al. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and the incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):511-7.
297. Quadri P et al. Homocysteine and B vitamins in mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(10):1096-100.
298. Scott TM et al. Homocysteine and B vitamins relate to brain volume and white-matter changes in geriatric patients with psychiatric disorders. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Nov-Dec;12(6):631-8.
299. Shoffner JM, Wallace D. Oxidative phosphorylation diseases. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, etal., eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1995.
300. Ames BN. Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1019:406-411.
301. Kidd PM. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Dec;10(4):268-93.
302. Manacuso M et al. Coenzyme Q10 in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders. Curr Drug Targets. 2010 Jan;11(1):111-21.
303. Galpern WR and Cudkowicz ME. Coenzyme Q treatment of neurodegenerative diseases of aging. Mitochondrion. 2007 Jun;7 Suppl:S146-53.
304. Yang X et al. Coenzyme Q10 attenuates beta-amyloid pathology in the aged transgenic mice with Alzheimer presenilin 1 mutation. J Mol Neurosci. 2008 Feb;34(2):165-71.
305. Traustadottier T et al. High-dose statin use does not impair aerobic capacity or skeletal muscle function in older adults.Age (Dordr). 2008 Dec;30(4):283-91.
306. Hamilton SJ et al. Coenzyme Q10 improves endothelial dysfunction in statin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2009 May;32(5):810-2.
307. Kettawan A et al. Protective effects of coenzyme q(10) on decreased oxidative stress resistance induced by simvastatin. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 May;40(3):194-202.
308. Zammit VA et al. Carnitine, mitochondrial function and therapy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009 Nov 30;61(14):1353-62.
309. Mynatt RL. Carnitine and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2009 Sep;25 Suppl 1:S45-9.
310. Hota KB et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine-mediated neuroprotection during hypoxia is attributed to ERK1/2-Nrf2-regulated mitochondrial biosynthesis. Hippocampus. 2011 May 3. doi: 10.1002/hipo.20934.
311. Ando S et al. Enhancement of learning capacity and cholinergic synaptic function by carnitine in aging rats. J Neurosci Res. 2001 Oct 15;66(2):266-71.
312. Barhwal K et al. Hypoxia-induced deactivation of NGF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling in hippocampal cells: neuroprotection by acetyl-L-carnitine. J Neurosci Res. 2008 Sep;86(12):2705-21.
313. Alves E et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine provides effective in vivo neuroprotection over 3,4-methylenedioximethamphetamine-induced mitochondrial neurotoxicity in the adolescent rat brain. Neuroscience. 2009 Jan 23;158(2):514-23.
314. Taglialatela G et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine enhances the response of PC12 cells to nerve growth factor. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1991 Apr 24;59(2):221-30.
315. Taglialatela G et al. Neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells stimulated by acetyl-L-carnitine arginine amide. Neurochem Res. 1995 Jan;20(1):1-9.
316. Montgomery SA et al. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003 Mar;18(2):61-71.
317. Kidd PM. Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and age-associated memory impairment: current understanding and progress toward integrative prevention. Altern Med Rev. 2008 Jun;13(2):85-115.
318. Richter Y et al. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study. Clin Interv Aging. 2010 Nov 2;5:313-6.
319. Kato-Kataoka A et al. Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010 Nov;47(3):246-55.
320. Vakhapova V et al. Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;29(5):467-74.
321. Birks J et al. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD003120.
322. Mashayekh A et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on cerebral blood flow assessed by quantitative MR perfusion imaging: a pilot study. Neuroradiology. 2011 Mar;53(3):185-91.
323. Mashayekh A et al. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on cerebral blood flow assessed by quantitative MR perfusion imaging: a pilot study. Neuroradiology. 2011 Mar;53(3):185-91.
324. Araujo JA et al. Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine. Can Vet J. 2008 Apr;49(4):379-85.
325. Kennedy DO et al. Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jun;22(4):199-210.
326. Kennedy DO et al. Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jun;22(4):199-210.
327. Dhanasekaran M et al. Neuroprotective mechanisms of ayurvedic antidementia botanical Bacopa monniera. Phytother Res. 2007 Oct;21(10):965-9.
328. Bhandari P et al. Bacosterol glycoside, a new 13,14-seco-steroid glycoside from Bacopa monnieri. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006 Feb;54(2):240-1.
329. Deepak M et al. Quantitative determination of the major saponin mixture bacoside A in Bacopa monnieri by HPLC. Phytochem Anal. 2005 Jan-Feb;16(1):24-9.
330. Stough C et al. The chronic effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Aug;156(4):481-4.
331. Calabrese C et al. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul;14(6):707-13.
332. Stough C et al. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Phytother Res. 2008 Dec;22(12):1629-34.
333. Kitisripanya N et al. Binding of huperzine A and galanthamine to acetylcholinesterase, based on ONIOM method. Nanomedicine. 2011 Feb;7(1):60-8.
334. Myers TM et al. Systemic administration of the potential countermeasure huperzine reversibly inhibits central and peripheral acetylcholinesterase activity without adverse cognitive-behavioral effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010 Jan;94(3):477-81.
335. Sun QQ et al. Huperzine-A capsules enhance memory and learning performance in 34 pairs of matched adolescent students. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999 Jul;20(7):601-3.
336. Wang BS et al. Efficacy and safety of natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitor huperzine A in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: an updated meta-analysis. J Neural Transm. 2009 Apr;116(4):457-65.
337. Koistinaho M, Koistinaho J. Interactions between Alzheimer's disease and cerebral ischemia--focus on inflammation. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2005 Apr;48(2):240-50.
338. Amenta F, Tayebati SK, et al. Association with the cholinergic precursor choline alphoscerate and the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine: An approach for enhancing cholinergic neurotransmission. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005 Nov 14
339. Parnetti L, Amenta F, Gallai V. Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mech Ageing Dev. 2001 Nov;122(16):2041-55.
340. Molnar P, Erdo SL. Vinpocetine is as potent as phenytoin to block voltage-gated Na+ channels in rat cortical neurons. Eur J Pharmacol 1995;273:303-306.
341. Chiu PJ, Tetzloff G, Ahn HS, Sybertz EJ. Comparative effects of vinpocetine and 8-Brcyclic GMP on the contraction and 45Cafluxes in the rabbit aorta. Am J Hypertens 1988;1:262-268.
342. Stolc S. Indole derivatives as neuroprotectants. Life Sci 1999;65:1943-1950.
343. Osawa M, Maruyama S. Effects of TCV-3B (vinpocetine) on blood viscosity in ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Ther Hung 1985;33:7-12.
344. 17. Kuzuya F. Effects of vinpocetine on platelet aggregability and erythrocyte deformability. Ther Hung 1985;33:22-34.
345. Feher G et al. Effect of parenteral or oral vinpocetine on the hemorheological parameters of patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases. Phytomedicine. 2009 Mar;16(2-3):111-7.
346. Haskell CF et al. Effects of a multi-vitamin/mineral supplement on cognitive function and fatigue during extended multi-tasking. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2010 Aug;25(6):448-61.