Health Concerns


A.D.A.M. New York Times Health Guide. Health page. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Available at: 7/14/2013. Accessed 9/23/2014.

Alfonso C, Jann S, Massa R, Torreggiani A. Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the carpel tunnel syndrome: a review. Neurological Sci 2010;31:243-252.

Andersen JH, Fallentin N, Thomsen JF, Mikkelsen S. Risk factors for neck and upper extremity disorders among computers users and the effect of interventions: an overview of systematic reviews. PloS one. 2011;6(5):e19691.

Andersen JH, Thomsen JF, Overgaard E, Lassen CF, Brandt LPA, Vilstrup I, et al. Computer use and carpal tunnel syndrome: a 1-year follow-up study. JAMA 2003;289:2963-2969.

Aroori S, Spence RA. Carpal tunnel syndrome. The Ulster medical journal. Jan 2008;77(1):6-17.

Ashworth N. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Clinical Evidence 2010;1114.

Ashworth N. ePocrates online. Diseases page. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Available at: Last updated 4/5/2013b. Accessed 4/16/2014.

Ashworth NL. Medscape online. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Available at: Last updated 3/5/2013a. Accessed 4/16/2014.

Atroshi I, Gummesson C, Johnsson R, Ornstein E, Ranstam J, Rosen I. Prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in a general population. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Jul 14 1999;282(2):153-158.

Baker NA, Moehling KK, Rubinstein EN, Wollstein R, Gustafson NP, Baratz M.  The comparative effectiveness of combined lumbrical muscle splints and stretches on symptoms and function in carpal tunnel syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:1-9.

Balci K, Utku U. Carpal tunnel syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Acta Neurol Scand 2007; 116:113-117.

Barnes CG, Currey HL. Carpal tunnel syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis. A clinical and electrodiagnostic survey. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. May 1967;26(3):226-233.

Basford JR, Hallman HO, Matsumoto JY, Moyer SK, Buss JM, Baxter GD. Effects of 830 nm continuous wave laser diode irradiation on median nerve function in normal subjects. Lasers in surgery and medicine. 1993;13(6):597-604.

Beltran-Sanchez H, Harhay MO, Harhay MM, McElligott S. Prevalence and trends of metabolic syndrome in the adult U.S. population, 1999-2010. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Aug 20 2013;62(8):697-703.

Bennett MI, Hughes N, Johnson MI. Methodological quality in randomised controlled trials of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation for pain: low fidelity may explain negative findings. Pain. Jun 2011;152(6):1226-1232.

Bernstein AL, Dinesen JS.  Brief communication: effect of pharmacological doses of vitamin B6 on carpal tunnel syndrome, electroencephalographic results, and pain. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:73-76.

Bickel KD, Carpal tunnel syndrome. J Hand Surgery 2010;35:147-152.

Bland JDP.  Carpal tunnel syndrome.  Curr Opin Neurol 2005a;18:581-585.

Bland JDP. The relationship of obesity, age, and carpal tunnel syndrome: More complex than was thought? Muscle Nerve 2005b;32:527-32.

Branco K, Naeser MA. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Clinical outcome after low-level laser acupuncture, microamps transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, and other alternative therapies-an open protocol study. J Altern Compliment Med 1999;5:5-26.

Buckley CD. Why does chronic inflammation persist: An unexpected role for fibroblasts. Immunology letters. Jul 2011;138(1):12-14.

Burt S, Crombie K, Jin Y, Wurzelbacher S, Ramsey J, Deddens J. Workplace and individual risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome. Occupational and environmental medicine. Dec 2011;68(12):928-933.

Burt S, Deddens JA, Crombie K, Jin Y, Wuerzelbacher S, Ramsey J. A prospective study of carpal tunnel syndrome: workplace and individual risk factors. Occup Environ Med 2013;70:568-574.

Cebesoy O, Kose KC, Kuru I, Altinel L, Gul R, Demirtas M. Use of a splint following open carpal tunnel release: A comparative study. Advances Therapy 2007;24:478-484.

Chamberlain MA, Corbett M. Carpal tunnel syndrome in early rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. Mar 1970;29(2):149-152.

Chang MH, Chiang HT, Lee SS, Ger LP, Lo YK. Oral drug of choice in carpal tunnel syndrome. Neurology 1998;51:390-393.

Chang WD, Wu JH, Jiang JA, Yeh CY, Tsai CT. Carpal tunnel syndrome treated with a diode laser: a controlled treatment of the transverse carpal ligament. Photomedicine and laser surgery. Dec 2008;26(6):551-557.

Chiechio S, Copani A, Nicoletti F, Gereau RWt. L-acetylcarnitine: a proposed therapeutic agent for painful peripheral neuropathies. Current neuropharmacology. Jul 2006;4(3):233-237.

Dahlin LB, Sanden H, Dahlin E, Zimmerman M, Thomsen N, Bjorkman A. Low myelinatinated nerve-fibre density may lead to symptoms associated with nerve entrapment in vibration-induced neuropathy. J Occupational Med Toxicol 2014;9:7.

Dakowicz A, Kuryliszyn-Moskal A, Kosztyla-Hojna B, Moskal D, Latosiewicz R. Comparison of the long-term effectiveness of physiotherapy programs with low-level laser therapy and pulsed magnetic field in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Advances in medical sciences. 2011;56(2):270-274.

Davis L, Vedanarayanan VV. Carpal tunnel syndrome in children. Pediatric neurology. Jan 2014;50(1):57-59.

De Grandis D, Minardi C. Acetyl-L-carnitine (levacecarnine) in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. A long-term, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Drugs in R&D. 2002;3(4):223-231.

De Grandis D. Tolerability and efficacy of L-acetylcarnitine in patients with peripheral neuropathies: a short-term, open multicentre study. Clinical drug investigation. 1998;15(2):73-79.

de la Fuente J, Miguel-Perez MI, Balius R, Guerrero V, Michaud J, Bong D. Minimally invasive ultrasound-guided carpal tunnel release: a cadaver study. Journal of clinical ultrasound: JCU. Feb 2013;41(2):101-107.

Di Geronimo G, Caccese AF, Caruso L, Soldait A, Passaretti U. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome with alpha-lipoic acid. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2009;13:133-139.

Di Pierro F, Settembre R. Safety and efficacy of an add-on therapy with curcumin phytosome and piperine and/ orlipoic acid in subjects with a diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy treated with dexibuprofen. J Pain Res 2013;6:497-503.

Durakoglugil ME, Cieck Y, Kocaman SA, Balik S, Kirbas S, Cetin M, et al. Increased pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle Nerve 2013;47:872-877.

Dyck PJ, Giannini C. Pathologic alterations in the diabetic neuropathies of humans: a review. Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. Dec 1996;55(12):1181-1193.

Eleftheriou A, Rachiotis G, Varitimidis S, Koutis C, Malizos KN, Hadjichristodoulou C. Cumulative keyboard strokes: a possible risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of occupational medicine and toxicology (London, England). 2012;7(1):16.

Elliot R, Burkett B. Massage therapy as an effective treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. J Bodywork Movement Therap 2013;17:332-338.

Ellis JM, Folkers K, Levy M, Shizukuishi S, Lawandski J, Nishii S, et al.  Response of vitamin B-6 deficiency and the carpal tunnel syndrome to pyridoxine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1982;79:7494-7498.

Ellis JM, Folkers K, Levy M, Takemura K, Shizukuishi S, Ulrich R, et al. Therapy with vitamin B6 with and without surgery for treatment of patients having idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1981;33:331-334.

Elwakil TF, Elazzazi A, Shokeir H. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome by low-level laser versus open carpal tunnel release. Lasers in medical science. Nov 2007;22(4):265-270.

Evcik D, Kavuncu V, Cakir T, Subasi V, Yaman M. Laser therapy in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Photomedicine and laser surgery. Feb 2007;25(1):34-39.

Ferry S, Hannaford P, Warskyj M, Lewis M, Croft P. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nested case-control study of risk factors in women. American journal of epidemiology. Mar 15 2000;151(6):566-574.

Fitzgibbons PG, Weiss APC. Hand manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus.  J Hand Surg 2008;33A:771-775.

Flatters SJ, Xiao WH, Bennett GJ. Acetyl-L-carnitine prevents and reduces paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Neuroscience letters. Apr 24 2006;397(3):219-223.

Folkers K, Ellis J, Watanabe T, Saji S, Kaji M. Biochemical evidence for a deficiency of vitamin B6 in the carpal tunnel syndrome based on a crossover clinical study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul 1978;75(7):3410-3412.

Folkers K, Wolaniuk A, Vadhanavikit S. Enzymology of the response of the carpal tunnel syndrome to riboflavin and to combined riboflavin and pyridoxine.  Proc Natl Acam Sci USA 1984;81:7076-7078.

Frasca G, Maggi L, Padua L, Ferrara PE, Granata G, Minciotti I, et al. Short-term effects of local microwave hyperthermia on pain and function in patients with mild to moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: a double blind randomized sham-controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2011;25:1109-1118.

Freeland AE, Tucci MA, Barbieri RA, Angel MF, Nick TG. Biochemical evaluation of serum and flexor tenosynovium in carpal tunnel syndrome. Microsurgery. 2002;22(8):378-385.

Fuhr JE, Farrow A, Nelson HS, Jr. Vitamin B6 levels in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960). Nov 1989;124(11):1329-1330.

Fusakul Y, Aranyavalai T, Saensri P, Thiengwittayaporn S. Low-level laser therapy with a wrist splint to treat carpal tunnel syndrome: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Lasers Med Sci. May 2014;29(3):1279-1287.

Gaby AR. Nutritional Medicine. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing; 2011.

Garfinkel MS, Singhal A, Katz WA, Allan DA, Reshetar R, Schumacher HR, Jr. Yoga-based intervention for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized trial. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association. Nov 11 1998;280(18):1601-1603.

Ghasemi-Rad M, Nosair E, Vegh A, Mohammadi A, Akkad A, Lesha E, . . . Hasan A. A handy review of carpal tunnel syndrome: From anatomy to diagnosis and treatment. World journal of radiology. Jun 28 2014;6(6):284-300.

Giersiepen K, Spallek M. Carpal tunnel syndrome as an occupational disease. Deutsches Arzteblatt international. Apr 2011;108(14):238-242.

Gurcay E, Unlu E, Gurcay AG, Tuncay R, Cakci A. Evaluation of the effect of local corticosteroid injection and anti-inflammatory medication in carpal tunnel syndrome. Scottish medical journal. Feb 2009;54(1):4-6.

Haase J. Carpel tunnel syndrome - a comprehensive review. Advances Technical Standards Neurosurgery 2007;32:178-249.

Hall GM, Spector TD, Studd JW. Carpal tunnel syndrome and hormone replacement therapy. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). Feb 8 1992;304(6823):382.

Hammer HB, Haavardsholm EA, Kvien TK. Ultrasonographic measurement of the median nerve in patients with rheumatoid arthritis without symptoms or signs of carpal tunnel syndrome. Annals of the rheumatic diseases. Jun 2007;66(6):825-827.

Hammer HB, Hovden IA, Haavardsholm EA, Kvien TK. Ultrasonography shows increased cross-sectional area of the median nerve in patients with arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford, England). May 2006;45(5):584-588.

Hassan Z, Mullins RF, Alam B, Mian MAH. Carpal tunnel syndrome following burns.  Annals Burn Fire Disasters 2008;XXI:153-155.

Hassanpour SE, Gousheh J.  Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced carpal tunnel syndrome: Management and follow-up evaluation. J Hand Surgery 2006;31A:575-579.

Hirata H, Nagakura T, Tsujii M, Morita A, Fujisawa K, Uchida A. The relationship of VEGF and PGE2 expression to extracellar matrix remodeling of the tenosynovium in the carpal tunnel syndrome. J Pathology 2004;204:605-612.

Huisstede BM, Hoogvliet P, Randsdorp MS, Glerum S, Van Middelkoop M, Koes BW.  Carpal tunnel syndrome. Part 1. Effectiveness of nonsurgical treatments - a systemic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:981-1004.

Huisstede BM, Randsdrop MS, Coert JH, Glerum S. Van Middelkoop M, Koes BW.  Carpal tunnel syndrome. Part 2. Effectiveness of surgical treatments - a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1005-1024.

Ibrahim I, Khan WS, Goddard N, Smitham P. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a review of the recent literature. The open orthopaedics journal. 2012;6:69-76.

Jadav SP, Patel NH, Shah TG, Gajera MV, Trivedi HR, Shah BK. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of serratiopeptidase and diclofenac in albino rats. Journal of pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics. Jul 2010;1(2):116-117.

Jain JB, Higgins LD, Losina E, Collins J, Blazar DS, Katz JN. Epidemiology of upper extremity disorders in the United States. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2014;15:4.

Kaplan Y, Kurt SG, Karaer H. Carpal tunnel syndrome in postmenopausal women. Journal of the neurological sciences. Jul 15 2008;270(1-2):77-81.

Karadag O, Kalyoncu U, Akdogan A, Karadag YS, Bilgen SA, Ozbakir S, . . . Calguneri M. Sonographic assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence and correlation with disease activity. Rheumatology international. Aug 2012;32(8):2313-2319.

Kececi H, Degirmenci Y. Hormone replacement therapy in hypothyroidism and nerve conduction study. Clinical Neurophysiology 2006;36(2):79-93.

Keir PJ, Bach JM, Hudes M, Rempel DM. Guidelines for wrist posture based on carpal tunnel pressure thresholds. Human Factors 2007;49:88-99.

Keniston RC, Nathan PA, Leklem JE, Lockwood RS. Vitamin B6, vitamin C, and carpal tunnel syndrome. J Occup Environ Med 1997;39:949-959.

Kerasnoudis A. Could sonographically guided percutaneous needle release of the carpal tunnel also play an important role in the treatment of recurrent carpal tunnel syndrome? Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Dec 2012;31(12):2048-2049; author reply 2049.

Khosrawi S, Moghtaderi A, Haghighat S. Acupuncture in treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial study.J Res Med Sci 2012;17:1-7.

Kilot M. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. First Consult. Clinical Key webpage. Available at: Last updated 6/19/2013. Accessed 3/4/2014

Kim JK, Hann HJ, Kim MJ, Kim JS. The expression of estrogen receptors in the tenosynovium of postmenopausal women with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Journal of orthopaedic research: official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society. Nov 2010;28(11):1469-1474.

Kim JK, Koh YD, Kim JS, Hann HJ, Kim MJ. Oxidative stress in subsynovial connective tissue of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. J Orthoped Res 2010;28:1463-1468.

Ko GD, Nowacki NB, Arseneau L, Eitel M, Hum A. Omega-3 fatty acids for neuropathic pain: Case series. Clin J Pain 2010;26:168-172.

Kostopoulos D. Treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: a review of the non-surgical approaches with emphasis in neural mobilization. Available at Accessed 08/19/2014. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2004;8(1):2-8.

Kurt S, Kisacik B, Kaplan Y, Yildirim B, Etikan I, Karaer H. Obesity and carpal tunnel syndrome: is there a causal relationship? European neurology. 2008;59(5):253-257.

Kwon JY, Ko K, Sohn YB, Kim SJ, Park SW, Kim SH, . . . Jin DK. High prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome). American journal of medical genetics. Part A. Jun 2011;155a(6):1329-1335.

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Lewanska M, Wagrowska-Koski E, Walusiak-Skorupa J. [Etiological factors for developing carpal tunnel syndrome in people who work with computers]. Medycyna pracy. 2013;64(1):37-45.

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Madenci E, Altindag O, Koca I, Yilmaz M, Gur A. Reliability and efficacy of the new massage technique on the treatment in the patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.  Rheumatology International 2012;32:3171-3179.

Marshall S, Tardif G, Ashworth N. Local corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2007(2):Cd001554.

Mattioli S, Baldasseroni A, Curti S, Cooke RM, Bena A, de Giacomi G, . . . Violante FS. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status. BMC public health. 2008;8:374.

Mayo Clinic. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Causes. Available at: 4/2/2014. Accessed 08/15/2014.

McDonagh C, Alexander M, Kane D. The role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel syndrome: a new paradigm. Rheumatology (Oxford, England). Aug 12 2014.

McShane JM, Slaff S, Gold JE, Nazarian LN. Sonographically guided percutaneous needle release of the carpal tunnel for treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome: preliminary report. Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Sep 2012;31(9):1341-1349.

Mediouni Z, De Roquemaurel A, Dumontier C, Becour B, Garrabe H, Roquelaure Y, Descatha A. Is carpal tunnel syndrome related to computer exposure at work?  A review and meta-analysis. J Occup Environ Med 2014;56:204-208.

Memeo A, Loiero M. Thioctic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of sciatic pain caused by a herniated disc: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study. Clinical drug investigation. 2008;28(8):495-500.

Mieog JS, Morden JP, Bliss JM, Coombes RC, van de Velde CJ. Carpal tunnel syndrome and musculoskeletal symptoms in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer treated with exemestane or tamoxifen after 2-3 years of tamoxifen: a retrospective analysis of the Intergroup Exemestane Study. The lancet oncology. Apr 2012;13(4):420-432.

Mijnhout GS, Kollen BJ, Alkhalaf A, Kleefstra N, Bilo HJ. Alpha lipoic Acid for symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. International journal of endocrinology. 2012:456279.

Moghtaderi AR, Jazayeri SM, Azizi S. EMLA cream for carpal tunnel syndrome: how it compares with steroid injection. Electomyogr Clin Neurophysiol 2009;49:287-289.

Mondelli M, Rossi S, Monti E, Aprile I, Caliandro P, Pazzaglia C, . . . Padua L. Long term follow-up of carpal tunnel syndrome during pregnancy: a cohort study and review of the literature. Electromyography and clinical neurophysiology. Sep 2007;47(6):259-271.

Moraska A, Chandler C, Edmison-Schaetzel A, Franklin G, Calenda EL, Enebo B. Comparison of a targeted and general massage protocol on strength, function, and symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized pilot study. Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine 2008;14:259-267.

Naeser MA, Hahn KAK, Lieberman BE, Branco KF. Carpal tunnel syndrome pain treated with low-level laser and microamperes transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation: A controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:978-988.

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Nathan PA, Wilcox A, Emerick PS, Meadows KD, McCormack AL. Effects of an aerobic exercise program on median nerve conduction and symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. J Occup Environ Med 2001;43:840-843.

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O’Connor D, Marshall S, Massy-Westropp N, Pitt V. Non-surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 1. Art. No.:CD003219. DOI 10.1002/14651858.CD003219

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