Restless Legs Syndrome
Allen GF, Land JM, Heales SJ. A new perspective on the treatment of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2009 May;97(1):6-14.
Allen RP, Barker PB, Wehrl F, et al. MRI measurement of brain iron in patients with restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2001; 56:263.
Allen RP, Ondo WG, Ball E, et al. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) augmentation associated with dopamine agonist and levodopa usage in a community sample. Sleep Med. 2011 May;12(5):431-9.
Aukerman MM, Aukerman D, et al. Exercise and Restless Legs Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 2006; 19.
Batool-Anwar S, Malhotra A, et al. Restless Legs Syndrome and Hypertension in Middle-Aged Women. Hypertension, 2011; 37(1).
Bayard M, Avonda T, et al. Restless Leg Syndrome. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Jul 15;78(2):235-40.
Bell G. FDA APPROVES NEW MEDICATION FOR RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME. Available at: https://www.rls.org/document.doc?id=2201. Accessed 4/4/2012.
Benbir G, Guilleminault C. Pramipexole: new use for an old drug - the potential use of pramipexole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2006 Dec;2(4):393-405.
Benes H, Kurella B, Kummer J, Kazenwadel J, Selzer R, Kohnen R. Rapid onset of action of levodopa in restless legs syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, crossover trial. Sleep 1999;22(8):1073-81.
Birgegard G, Schneider K, et al. High incidence of iron depletion and Restless Leg Syndrome in regular blood donors: intravenous iron sucrose substitution more effective than oral iron. Vox Sanguinis, 2010; 99(4).
Boroojerdi B, Wolff HM, Braun M, et al. Rotigotine transdermal patch for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010 Jul;46(7):483-505.
Bosco D, Plastino M, Fava A, et al. Role of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) in the idiopathic restless legs syndrome. J Neurol Sci. 2009 Dec 15;287(1-2):60-3.
Botez MI, Cadotte M, Beaulieu R, et al. Neurologic disorders responsive to folic acid therapy. Can Med Assoc J 1976;115:217-223.
Botez MI, Fontaine F, Botez T, Bachevalier J. Folate responsive neurological and mental disorders: report of 16 cases. Neuropsychological correlates of computerized transaxial tomography and radionuclide cisternography in folic acid deficiencies. Eur Neurol 1977;16:230-246.
Bradley W. Restless Legs Syndrome. Bradley: Neurology in Clinical Practice, 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: BUTTERWORTH HEINEMANN ELSEVIER; 2008. MD Consult Web site. Available at http://www.mdconsult.com/books/page.do?eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-7506-7525-3..50110-2&isbn=978-0-7506-7525-3&uniqId=327440087-13#4-u1.0-B978-0-7506-7525-3..50110-2--p1978 Accessed April 2, 2012
Carpentier PH and Mathieu M. Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy of a Venotonic Drug: Lessons of a Therapeutical Trial with Hemisynthesis Diosmin in “Heavy Legs Syndrome.” Journal de Maladies Vasculaires, 1998.
Cervenka S, Pålhagen SE, Comley RA, et al. Support for dopaminergic hypoactivity in restless legs syndrome: a PET study on D2-receptor binding. Brain 2006; 129:2017.
Clemens S, Rye D, Hochman S. Restless legs syndrome: revisiting the dopamine hypothesis from the spinal cord perspective. Neurology 2006; 67:125.
Conner JR. Pathophysiology of Restless Legs Syndrome: Evidence for Iron Involvement. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 2008. 8(2).
Connor JR, Boyer PJ, Menzies SL, et al. Neuropathological examination suggests impaired brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2003; 61:304.
Connor JR, Ponnuru P, Wang XS, et al. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome. Brain 2011; 134:959.
Connor JR, Wang XS, Patton SM, et al. Decreased transferrin receptor expression by neuromelanin cells in restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2004; 62:1563.
Connor JR. Pathophysiology of Restless Legs Syndrome: Evidence For Iron Involvement. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 2008. 8(2).
Cuellar NG and Ratcliffe SJ. Does Valerian Improve Sleepiness and Symptom Severity in People With Restless Legs Syndrome? Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 2009; 15(2).
Cui Y, Wang Y, et al. Acupuncture For Restless Legs Syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD006457.
Davis BJ, Rajput A, et al. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Iron in Restless Legs Syndrome. European Neurology, 2000; 43(2).
Earley CJ, Connor JR, Beard JL, et al. Abnormalities in CSF concentrations of ferritin and transferrin in restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2000; 54:1698.
Earley CJ, Heckler D, et al. The Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome with Intravenous Iron Dextran. Sleep Medicine, 2004; 5(3).
Eisensehr I, Wetter TC, Linke R, et al. Normal IPT and IBZM SPECT in drug-naive and levodopa-treated idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2001; 57:1307.
Elshoff JP, Braun M, Andreas JO, et al. Steady-State Plasma Concentration Profile of Transdermal Rotigotine: An Integrated Analysis of Three, Open-Label, Randomized, Phase I Multiple Dose Studies. Clin Ther. 2012 Mar 6. [Epub ahead of print].
Esteves AM, De Mello MT, et al. Effects of Acute and Chronic Exercise on Patients with Periodic Leg Movements. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2009; 41(1).
Farlow MR, and Somogyi M. Transdermal patches for the treatment of neurologic conditions in elderly patients: a review. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2011;13(6). pii: PCC.11r01149.
Ferri F. Restless Legs Syndrome. Ferri's Netter Patient Advisor. Elsevier Saunders; 2012. MD Consult Web site. Available at http://www.mdconsult.com/das/patient/body/327440087-4/1290464851/10084/38675.html. Accessed April 2, 2012.
Gamaldo CE and Earley CJ. Restless Legs Syndrome: A Clinical Update. Chest. 2006 Nov;130(5):1596-604.
Gamaldo CE and Earley CJ. Restless legs syndrome: a clinical update. Chest. 2006 Nov;130(5):1596-604.
García-Borreguero D, Allen RP, Benes H, Earley C, Happe S, Högl B, et al. Augmentation as a treatment complication of restless legs syndrome: concept and management. Movement Disorders 2007;22 Suppl 18:S476-84.
Garcia-Borreguero D, Larrosa O, de la Llave Y, et al. Treatment of restless legs syndrome with gabapentin: a double-blind, cross-over study. Neurology 2002; 59:1573.
Garcia-Borreguero D, Odin P, Schwarz C. Restless legs syndrome: an overview of the current understanding and management. Acta Neurol Scand. 2004;109:303-317.
Gemignani F, Brindani F, Vitetta F, et al. Restless legs syndrome in diabetic neuropathy: a frequent manifestation of small fiber neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2007 Mar;12(1):50-3.
Gjerstad MD, Tysnes OB, et al. Increased risk of leg motor restlessness but not RLS in early Parkinson disease. Neurology, 2011.
Godau J and Berg D. Rotigotine in the Long-Term Treatment of Severe RLS with Augmentation: A Series of 28 Cases Sleep Disorders Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 468952, 6 pages doi:10.1155/2011/468952.
Guerreiro TM, Nishikawa DR, Ferreira LC, et al. Restless legs syndrome in Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and biochemical correlations. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2010; 68:869.
Happe S, Klösch G, Saletu B, Zeitlhofer J. Treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) with gabapentin. Neurology 2001; 57:1717.
Hogl B, Garcia-Borreguero D, Kohnen R, et al. Progressive development of augmentation during long-term treatment with levodopa in restless legs syndrome: results of a prospective multi-center study. J Neurol. 2010 Feb;257(2):230-7.
Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, Berger M, Riemann D. Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study. Sleep 1998;21.
Hornyak M. Depressive disorders in restless legs syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. CNS Drugs 2010; 24:89.
Inoue Y, Hirata K, Kuroda K, Fujita M, Shimizu T, Emura N, et al. Efficacy and safety of pramipexole in Japanese patients with primary restless legs syndrome: A polysomnographic randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sleep Medicine 2010;11:11-16.
Juergens TM. Adverse Effects of Ropinirole-Treated Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) During Smoking Cessation. J Clin Sleep Med. 2008 Aug 15;4(4):371-2.
Kaplan PW, Allen RP, Buchholz DW, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the treatment of periodic limb movements in sleep using carbidopa/levodopa and propoxyphene. 1993 Dec;16(8):717-23.
Kavanagh D, Siddiqui S, Geddes CC. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 43:763.
Kushida CA, Walters AS, Becker P, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of XP13512/GSK1838262 in the treatment of patients with primary restless legs syndrome. Sleep 2009; 32:159.
Lee HB, Hening WA, Allen RP, et al. Restless legs syndrome is associated with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and panic disorder in the community. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2008; 20:101.
Lee KA, Zaffke ME, et al. Restless Legs Syndrome and Sleep Disturbance During Pregnancy; The Role of Folate and Iron. Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine, 2004; 10(4).
Lopes LA, Lins Cde M, Adeodato VG, et al. Restless legs syndrome and quality of sleep in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005; 28:2633.
Maksimovic ZV, Maksimovic M, et al. Medicamentous Treatment of Chronic Venous Insufficiency Using Semisynthetic Diosmin---A Prospective Study. Acta Chirugica Iugoslavia, 2008; 55(4).
Manconi M, Govoni V, et al. Restless Legs Syndrome and Pregnancy. Neurology, 2004; 63(6).
McDonagh B, King T, et al. Restless Legs Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Venous Disease: An Untold Story. Phlebology, 2007; 22.
Merlino G, Fratticci L, Valente M, et al. Association of restless legs syndrome in type 2 diabetes: a case-control study. Sleep 2007; 30:866.
Miletic V and Relja M. Restless legs syndrome. Coll Antropol. 2011 Dec;35(4):1339-47.
Mitchell UH, Myrer JW, et al. Restless Legs Syndrome and Near-Infrared Light: An Alternative Treatment Option. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 2011; 27(5).
Mitchell UH. Use of Near-Infrared Light to Reduce Symptoms Associated with Restless Legs Syndrome in a Woman: A Case Report. Journal of Medical Case Reports, 2010; 4.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Restless Legs Syndrome Fact Sheet. Revised 11/25/2011. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/restless_legs/detail_restless_legs.htm Accessed 4/22/2012. O'Hare JA, Abuaisha F, Geoghegan M. Prevalence and forms of neuropathic morbidity in 800 diabetics. Ir J Med Sci 1994; 163:132.
O’Hare JA, Abuaisha F, Geoghegan M. Prevalence and forms of neuropathic morbidity in 800 diabetics. Ir J Med Sci. 1994 Mar;163(3):132-5.
Ohayon MM and Roth T. Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder in the General Population. J Psychosom Res. 2002 Jul;53(1):547-54.
O'Keeffe ST, Gavin K, Lavan JN. Iron status and restless legs syndrome in the elderly. Age Ageing 1994; 23:200.
Oksenberg A. Alleviation of Severe Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Symptoms By Cigarette Smoking. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2009; 6(5).
Patrick L. Restless Legs Syndrome: Pathophysiology and the Role of Iron and Folate. Alternative Medicine Review, 2007; 12.
Paulus W, Schomburg ED. Dopamine and the spinal cord in restless legs syndrome: does spinal cord physiology reveal a basis for augmentation? Sleep Med. Rev. 10, 185–196 (2006).
Phillips B, Young T, Finn L, Asher K, Hening WA, Purvis C. Epidemiology of restless legs symptoms in adults. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(14):2137–2141.
Pigeon WR and Yurcheshen M. vioral Sleep Medicine Interventions for Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movement Disorder. Sleep Med Clin. 2009 Dec 1;4(4):487-494.
Pullen SJ, Wall CA, Angstman ER, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents with restless legs syndrome: a retrospective study. J Clin Sleep Med 2011; 7:587.
Quilici S, Abrams K, Nicolas A, Martin M, Petit C, Lleu P, Finnern H (2008). Meta-analysis of the efficacy and tolerability of pramipexole versus ropinirole in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Sleep Medicine 9 (7): 715–72.
Rajaram SS, Shanahan J, Ash C, et al. Enhanced external counter pulsation (EECP) as a novel treatment for restless leg syndrome (RLS): a preliminary test of the vascular neurologic hypothesis for RLS. Sleep Med. 2005;6(2):101-6.
Rangarajan S and D’souza GA. Restless legs syndrome in Indian patients having iron deficiency anemia in a tertiary care hospital. Sleep Med. 2007 Apr;8(3):247-51.
Rudolph U, Crestani F, Benke D, et al. Benzodiazepine actions mediated by specific gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor subtypes. Nature. 1999 Oct 21;401(6755):796-800.
Ruottinen HM, Partinen M, Hublin C, et al. An FDOPA PET study in patients with periodic limb movement disorder and restless legs syndrome. Neurology 2000; 54:502.
Russel M. Massage Therapy and Restless Legs Syndrome. J Bodywork Movement Ther 11 (2007) 146 Leg
Sagheb MM, Dormanesh B, Fallahzadeh MK, et al. Efficacy of vitamins C, E, and their combination for treatment of restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-bline, placebo-controlled trial. Sleep Med. 2012 May;13(5):542-5.
Saletu M, Anderer P, Saletu-Zyhlarz G, et al. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD): acute placebo-controlled sleep laboratory studies with clonazepam. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001 Apr;11(2):153-61.
Scholz H, Trenkwalder C, et al. Levodopa for restless legs syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;(2):CD005504.
Shecterle L, Kasubick R, et al. D-Ribose Benefits Restless Legs Syndrome. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2008; 14(9).
Silverstein SB and Rodgers GM. Parenteral Iron Therapy Options. American Journal of Hematology, 2004; 76(1).
Sloand JA, Shelly MA, et al. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Intravenous Iron Dextran Therapy in Patients with ESRD and Restless Legs Syndrome. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 2004; 43(4).
Slutsky I, Abumaria N, et al. Enhancement of Learning and Memory by Elevating Brain Magnesium. Neuron, 2010; 65(2).
Stanislao CD, Brotzu R, et al. Acupuncture for Restless Legs Syndrome: A Retrospective Case Series. Medical Acupuncture. March 2009, 21(1): 63-65.
Taavoni S, Ekbatani N, Kashaniyan M, et al. Effect of valerian on sleep quality in postmenopausal women: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Menopause. 2011 Sep;18(9):951-5.
Thorp ML, Morris CD, and Bagby SP. A crossover study of gabapentin in treatment of restless legs syndrome among hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Jul;38(1):104-8.
Tison F, Crochard A, Leger D, et al. Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome in French adults: a nationwide survey: the INSTANT Study. Neurology. 2005 Jul 26;65(2):239-46.
Trenkwalder C, Benes H, Grote L, Happe S, Högl B, Mathis J, et al. Cabergoline compared to levodopa in the treatment of patients with severe restless legs syndrome: results from a multicenter, randomized, active controlled trial. Movement Disorders 2007;22(5):696-703.
Trenkwalder C, Hening HA, et al. Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome: An Evidence-Based Review and Implication for Clinical Practice. Mov Disord. 2008 Dec 15;23(16):2267-302.
Trotti LM, Bhadriraju S, et al. Iron For Restless Legs Syndrome. The Cochrane Library, 2009.
Tunc T, Karadag YS, Dogulu F, et al. Predisposing factors of restless legs syndrome in pregnancy. Mov Disord. 2007 Apr 15;22(5):627-31.
Turjanski N, Lees AJ, Brooks DJ. Striatal dopaminergic function in restless legs syndrome: 18F-dopa and 11C-raclopride PET studies. Neurology 1999; 52:932.
Vinson JA, Burnham BR, and Nagendran MV. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2012;5:21-7. Epub 2012 Jan 18.
Von Spiczak S, Whone AL, Hammers A, et al. The role of opioids in restless legs syndrome: an [11C]diprenorphine PET study. Brain. 2005 Apr;128(Pt 4):906-17.
Walker S, Fine A, Kryger MH. Sleep complaints are common in a dialysis unit. Am J Kidney Dis 1995; 26:751.
Walters AS and Rye DB. Review of the Relationship Between Restless Legs Syndrome and Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep to Hypertension, Heart Disease and Stroke. Sleep, 2009; 32(5).
Walters AS, Ondo WG, Dreykluft T, et al. Ropinirole is effective in the treatment of restless legs syndrome. TREAT RLS 2: a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. Mov Disord. 2004;19:1414-1423.
Walters AS, Wagner ML, Hening WA, et al. Successful treatment of the idiopathic restless legs syndrome in a randomized double-blind trial of oxycodone versus placebo. Sleep. 1993 Jun;16(4):327-32.
Wang J, O’Reilly B, et al. Efficacy of Oral Iron in Patients With Restless Legs Syndrome and a Low-Normal Ferritin: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Sleep Medicine, 2009; 10(9).
Winkelmann J, Prager M, Lieb R, et al. "Anxietas tibiarum". Depression and anxiety disorders in patients with restless legs syndrome. J Neurol 2005; 252:67.
Yagihashi S, Yamagishi S, and Wada R. Pathology and pathogenetic mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy: correlation with clinical signs and symptoms. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Sep;77 Suppl 1:S184-9.
Yee B, Killick R, Wong K. Restless legs syndrome. Aust Fam Physician. 2009 May;38(5):296-300.
Zhou GY. Treatment of 48 cases of restless legs syndrome with dermal needle therapy. Chinese Journal of Information on TCM 2002;9(10):63-4.