Life Extension Magazine 2011
Are We All Pre-Diabetic?
By Kirk Stokel
By Kirk Stokel
Life Extension Magazine 2011
By Kirk Stokel
Green Coffee Extract Improves Glucose Control
Green coffee bean extract found in unroasted coffee beans, once purified and standardized, produces high levels of chlorogenic acid and other beneficial polyphenols that can suppress excess blood glucose levels.
The research findings on the impact of chlorogenic acid on blood sugar are impressive. For starters, a team of Japanese researchers recorded a 43% drop in blood sugar levels after administering green coffee bean extract to mice after a heavy meal.24
Human clinical trials support the role of chlorogenic acid-rich green coffee bean extract in promoting healthy blood sugar control and reducing disease risk.
Aware of the crucial importance of controlling after-meal blood sugar spikes, scientists conducted a study among 56 healthy volunteers, challenging them with an oral glucose tolerance test before and after a supplemental dose of green coffee extract. The oral glucose tolerance test is a standardized way of measuring a person's after-meal blood sugar response.
In subjects not taking green coffee bean extract, the oral glucose tolerance test showed the expected rise of blood sugar to an average of 144 mg/dL after a 30 minute period. But in subjects who had taken 200 mg of the green coffee bean extract, that sugar spike was significantly reduced, to just 124 mg/dL—a 14% decrease1 (See figure 1).
That impressive difference was sustained throughout the two-hour study period at a dose as low as 200 mg of green coffee bean extract. Subjects had a mean 19% reduction of blood sugar at one hour, and a 22% reduction (glucose down to just 89 mg/dL) at two hours, compared to each patient's own untreated levels. In other words, the amount of time subjects had glucose levels in the dangerous range was sharply curtailed by the green coffee bean extract1 (See figures 2 and 3).
To state this differently, when subjects did not take the green coffee bean extract, their oral glucose tolerance reading after two hours showed blood sugar of 115 mg/dL—a higher-than-desirable level. In response to a modest dose of 200 mg of green coffee bean extract, two-hour blood sugar levels dropped to only 89 mg/dL1 (See figure 3).
For most aging individuals, even after eating nothing for eight to twelve hours, it is challenging to achieve a "fasting" glucose reading as low as 89 mg/dL. Yet when these study subjects took 200 mg of green coffee bean extract, their glucose levels dropped to 89 mg/dL just two hours after drinking a pure glucose solution. The high-dose glucose drink used in standard oral glucose tolerance tests spikes blood sugar more than typical meals.
When a higher dose (400 mg) of green coffee bean extract was supplemented before an oral glucose challenge test there was an even greater average reduction in blood sugar—up to nearly 28% at one hour!1
How Green Coffee Bean Extract Suppresses Glucose Elevation
Scientists have discovered that chlorogenic acid found abundantly in green coffee bean extract inhibits the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase that triggers new glucose formation and glucose release by the liver.25,26 As discussed earlier, glucose-6-phosphatase is involved in dangerous after-meal spikes in blood sugar.27
Another means by which chlorogenic acid acts to suppress after-meal glucose surges is by inhibiting alpha-glucosidase. This intestinal enzyme breaks apart complex sugars and enhances their absorption into the blood.28 Slowing the absorption of common sugars (including sucrose) limits after-meal glucose spikes.29
In yet another significant mechanism, chlorogenic acid increases the signal protein for insulin receptors in liver cells.30 That has the effect of increasing insulin sensitivity, which in turn drives down blood sugar levels.
Chlorogenic acid-rich plant extracts have been shown to reduce fasting blood glucose values by more than 15% in diabetic patients with poor response to medication.31 A similar effect was seen in healthy volunteers, whose intestinal absorption of glucose was reduced following a chlorogenic acid-enriched coffee drink.32
When a chlorogenic acid supplement of 1 gram was given before meals, glucose levels were reduced by 13 mg/dL, just 15 minutes after an oral glucose challenge, demonstrating its ability to rapidly lower the after-meal blood sugar spike in humans.33
In a clinical trial, researchers gave different dosages of green coffee bean extract, standardized for chlorogenic acid, to 56 people. Thirty-five minutes later, they gave the participants 100 grams of glucose in an oral glucose challenge test. Blood sugar levels dropped by an increasingly greater amount as the test dosage of green coffee bean extract was raised, from 200 mg up to 400 mg. At the 400 mg dosage, there was a full 24% decrease in blood sugar—just 30 minutes after glucose ingestion.1
This means that if you had a dangerous after-meal glucose reading of 160 mg/dL, green coffee bean extract would slash it to 121 mg/dL.
These findings are in line with supportive data demonstrating green coffee bean extract's numerous blood sugar-reducing mechanisms of action.
Other experimental models reveal that chlorogenic acid favorably modulates gene expression to enhance the activity of liver cells and increase levels of the hormone adiponectin, which enhances insulin sensitivity and exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-atherogenic effects.34
The need to redefine diabetes is critical because risk of premature death and disease rises sharply with fasting blood sugar greater than 85 mg/dL.
Furthermore, the insidious impact of after-meal blood sugar spikes goes largely undetected, exposing the vast majority of people to accelerated disease risk.
Behind this danger is the little-appreciated role of glucose-6-phosphatase in creating and releasing additional glucose into the blood. This enzyme, which helps regulate blood sugar when you're young, can inappropriately trigger a dangerous after-meal surge of blood sugar as you age.
Avant-garde scientists have identified a breakthrough weapon to control these surges: green coffee bean extract. This natural ingredient contains a compound called chlorogenic acid shown to target glucose-6-phosphatase and blunt post-consumption blood sugar levels by up to 32%.
A consistent finding in those who restrict their calorie intake is markedly lower blood glucose levels. Longevity enthusiasts can now benefit from a novel yet natural green coffee bean extract to combat internal processes that cause dangerous elevations in blood glucose.
If you have any questions on the scientific content of this article, please call a Life Extension® Health Advisor at 1-866-864-3027.
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