Obesity and Weight Loss
ReferencesAbidov, M., Ramazanov, Z., Seifulla, R., and Grachev, S. The effects of Xanthigen in the weight management of obese premenopausal women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and normal liver fat. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010;12(1):72–81
Ahuja, K. D. K., and Ball, M. J. Effects of daily ingestion of chilli on serum lipoprotein oxidation in adult men and women. Br J Nutr. 2006;96(2):239–42
Akinnusi, M. E., Saliba, R., Porhomayon, J., and El-Solh, A. A. Sleep disorders in morbid obesity. Eur. J. Intern. Med. 2012;23(3):219–26
Aleksandrova K, Nimptsch K, Pischon T. Obesity and colorectal cancer. Frontiers in bioscience. 2013;5:61-77.
Allott EH, Masko EM, Freedland SJ. Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Weighing the Evidence. European urology. Nov 15 2012.
American Heart Association. Statistical Fact Sheet 2012 update; Overweight and Obesity. Available at: http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_319588.pdf accessed 1/9/0212.
AoA Statistics, F. I. F. O. A.-R. Older Americans 2008: key indicators of well-being. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. Available at: http://www.aoa.gov/agingstatsdotnet/ Main Site/Data/2008 Documents/OA 2008. pdf.
Aoki Y, Belin RM, Clickner R, Jeffries R, Phillips L, and Mahaffey KR. Serum TSH and total T4 in the United States population and their association with participant characteristics: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). Thyroid. 2007;17(12):1211–23
Apostolopoulou, M., Savopoulos, C., Michalakis, K., Coppack, S., Dardavessis, T., and Hatzitolios, A. Age, weight and obesity. Maturitas. 2012;71(2):115–9
Asvold, B. O., Bjøro, T., and Vatten, L. J. Association of serum TSH with high body mass differs between smokers and never-smokers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(12):5023–7
Bakuradze, T., Boehm, N., Janzowski, C., et al. Antioxidant-rich coffee reduces DNA damage, elevates glutathione status and contributes to weight control: Results from an intervention study. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2011;55(5):793–7
Barbero-Becerra VJ, Santiago-Hernandez JJ, Villegas-Lopez FA, Mendez-Sanchez N, Uribe M, Chavez-Tapia NC. Mechanisms involved in the protective effects of metformin against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Current medicinal chemistry. 2012;19(18):2918-2923.
Barrett, M. L., and Udani, J. K. A proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a review of clinical studies on weight loss and glycemic control. Nutr J. 2011;10:24
Bastard, J.-P., Maachi, M., Lagathu, C., et al. Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur. Cytokine Netw. 2006;17(1):4–12
Begg, D. P., and Woods, S. C. The central insulin system and energy balance. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2012;(209):111–29
Benedict C, Brooks SJ, O'Daly OG, Almen MS, Morell A, Aberg K, . . . Schioth HB. Acute sleep deprivation enhances the brain's response to hedonic food stimuli: an fMRI study. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. Mar 2012;97(3):E443-447.
Berstein LM. Metformin in obesity, cancer and aging: addressing controversies. Aging (Albany NY). May 2012;4(5):320-329.
Biondi, B. Thyroid and obesity: an intriguing relationship. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(8):3614–7
Björntorp, P. Do stress reactions cause abdominal obesity and comorbidities? Obes Rev. 2001;2(2):73–86
Björntorp, P. Metabolic implications of body fat distribution. Diabetes Care. 1991;14(12):1132–43
Blaak EE, Antoine JM, Benton D, Bjorck I, Bozzetto L, Brouns F, . . . Vinoy S. Impact of postprandial glycaemia on health and prevention of disease. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. Oct 2012;13(10):923-984.
Bobyleva, V., Bellei, M., Kneer, N., and Lardy, H. The effects of the ergosteroid 7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone on mitochondrial membrane potential: possible relationship to thermogenesis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1997;341(1):122–8
Bose M, Lambert JD, Ju J, Reuhl KR, Shapses SA, Yang CS. The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice. The Journal of nutrition. Sep 2008;138(9):1677-1683.
Bosy-Westphal A, Eichhorn C, Kutzner D, Illner K, Heller M, Muller MJ. The age-related decline in resting energy expenditure in humans is due to the loss of fat-free mass and to alterations in its metabolically active components. The Journal of nutrition. Jul 2003;133(7):2356-2362.
Breum L, Rasmussen MH, Hilsted J, Fernstrom JD. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction. The American journal of clinical nutrition. May 2003;77(5):1112-1118.
Brown, K. A., and Simpson, E. R. Obesity and breast cancer: mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2012;4:2515–24
Brusik M, Ukropec J, Joppa P, Ukropcova B, Skyba P, Balaz M, . . . Tkacova R. Circulatory and adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin in relationship to resting energy expenditure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca. Aug 8 2012.
Buler, M., Aatsinki, S.-M., Skoumal, R., et al. Energy-sensing Factors Coactivator Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and AMP-activated Protein Kinase Control Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Liver: INDUCTION OF INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST. J Biol Chem. 2012;287(3):1847–60
Calton, J. B. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010;7:24
Cameron, F., Whiteside, G., and McKeage, K. Phentermine and topiramate extended release (qsymia™): first global approval. Drugs. 2012;72(15):2033–42
Cavaliere, H., and Medeiros-Neto, G. The anorectic effect of increasing doses of L-tryptophan in obese patients. Eat Weight Disord. 1997 Dec;2(4):211-5.
CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of obesity among adults with arthritis --- United States, 2003--2009. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Apr 29 2011;60(16):509-513.
Chacko, S. A., Sul, J., Song, Y., et al. Magnesium supplementation, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and global genomic and proteomic profiling: a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial in overweight individuals. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011;93(2):463–73
Champagne, C. M. Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 2008;23(2):142–51
Chantre P, Lairon D. Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology. Jan 2002;9(1):3-8.
Chen YK, Cheung C, Reuhl KR, Liu AB, Lee MJ, Lu YP, Yang CS. Effects of green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on newly developed high-fat/Western-style diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. Nov 9 2011;59(21):11862-11871.
Chen, K., Li, F., Li, J., et al. Induction of leptin resistance through direct interaction of C-reactive protein with leptin. Nat. Med. 2006;12(4):425–32
Cohen, D. A., and Bhatia, R. Nutrition standards for away-from-home foods in the USA. Obes Rev. 2012;13(7):618–29
Corley DA, Kubo A. Body mass index and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American journal of gastroenterology. Nov 2006;101(11):2619-2628.
Cruz NG, Sousa LP, Sousa MO, Pietrani NT, Fernandes AP, Gomes KB. The linkage between inflammation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes research and clinical practice. Dec 13 2012.
Davidson, M., Marwah, A., Sawchuk, R. J., et al. Safety and pharmacokinetic study with escalating doses of 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy male volunteers. Clin Invest Med. 2000;23(5):300–10
De Maddalena C, Vodo S, Petroni A, Aloisi AM. Impact of testosterone on body fat composition. Journal of cellular physiology. Dec 2012;227(12):3744-3748.
De Vriendt, T., Moreno, L. A., and De Henauw, S. Chronic stress and obesity in adolescents: scientific evidence and methodological issues for epidemiological research. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009;19(7):511–9
Dennis, E. A., Flack, K. D., and Davy, B. M. Beverage consumption and adult weight management: A review. Eat Behav. 2009;10(4):237–46
Despres JP. Potential contribution of metformin to the management of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with abdominal obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes & metabolism. Sep 2003;29(4 Pt 2):6S53-61.
Devalaraja, S., Jain, S., and Yadav, H. Exotic fruits as therapeutic complements for diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Food Research International. 2011;44(7):1856–6
Dhahbi, J. M., Mote, P. L., Fahy, G. M., and Spindler, S. R. Identification of potential caloric restriction mimetics by microarray profiling. Physiol Genomics. 2005;23(3):343–50
Dixon, J. B., le Roux, C. W., Rubino, F., and Zimmet, P. Bariatric surgery for type 2 diabetes. Lancet. 2012;379(9833):2300–11
Doi K, Nakamura T, Aoyama N, Matsurura M, Kawara A, Baba S. Metabolic and nutritional effects of long-term use of glucomannan in the treatment of obesity. In: Oomura Y, ed. Progress in Obesity Research. John Libbey & Company, Ltd., 1990:507-14.
Doi, K. Effect of konjac fibre (glucomannan) on glucose and lipids. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995;49 Suppl 3:S190–7
D'Orazio, N., Gemello, E., Gammone, M. A., de Girolamo, M., Ficoneri, C., and Riccioni, G. Fucoxantin: a treasure from the sea. Mar Drugs. 2012;10(3):604–16
Egras, A. M., Hamilton, W. R., Lenz, T. L., and Monaghan, M. S. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products. J Obes. 2011;2011
Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Kaptoge, S., Di Angelantonio, E., et al. C-reactive protein concentration and risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis. Lancet. 2010;375(9709):132–40
Expert Panel on the Identification Evaluation and Treatment of Overweight in Adults. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: executive summary. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68(4):899–917
Festi, D., Scaioli, E., Baldi, F., et al. Body weight, lifestyle, dietary habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(14):1690–701
Fontana, L., Klein, S., Holloszy, J. O., and Premachandra, B. N. Effect of long-term calorie restriction with adequate protein and micronutrients on thyroid hormones. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(8):3232–5
Fontana, L., Meyer, T. E., Klein, S., and Holloszy, J. O. Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101(17):6659–63
Fried, S. K., Russell, C. D., Grauso, N. L., and Brolin, R. E. Lipoprotein lipase regulation by insulin and glucocorticoid in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues of obese women and men. J Clin Invest. 1993;92(5):2191–8
Fröhlich, E., and Wahl, R. Do antidiabetic medications play a specific role in differentiated thyroid cancer compared to other cancer types? Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14(3):204–13
Galani, V. J., Patel, B. G., and Rana, D. G. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010;1(4):247–53
Gann, C. FDA Approves Weight Loss Drug Qsymia. abcnews.go.com. 2012; Available at: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/fda-approves-diet-drug-qsymia/story?id=16797062#.UHuMa815oZw [Accessed October 15, 2012].
Garber, A. J. Obesity and type 2 diabetes: which patients are at risk? Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14(5):399–408
Geleijnse, J. M., Giltay, E. J., Grobbee, D. E., Donders, A. R. T., and Kok, F. J. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. J. Hypertens. 2002;20(8):1493–9
Gersin, K. S., Keller, J. E., Stefanidis, D., et al. Duodenal- jejunal bypass sleeve: a totally endoscopic device for the treatment of morbid obesity. Surg Innov. 2007;14(4):275–8
Giles ED, Wellberg EA, Astling DP, Anderson SM, Thor AD, Jindal S, . . . Maclean PS. Obesity and overfeeding affecting both tumor and systemic metabolism activates the progesterone receptor to contribute to postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer research. Dec 15 2012;72(24):6490-6501.
Gout, B., Bourges, C., and Paineau-Dubreuil, S. Satiereal, a Crocus sativus L extract, reduces snacking and increases satiety in a randomized placebo-controlled study of mildly overweight, healthy women. Nutr Res. 2010;30(5):305–13
Gribovskaja-Rupp I, Kosinski L, Ludwig KA. Obesity and colorectal cancer. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery. Dec 2011;24(4):229-243.
Hagobian, T. A., and Braun, B. Physical activity and hormonal regulation of appetite: sex differences and weight control. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010;38(1):25–30
Hampel, H., Abraham, N. S., and El-Serag, H. B. Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(3):199–211
Hanefeld, M., Cagatay, M., Petrowitsch, T., Neuser, D., Petzinna, D., and Rupp, M. Acarbose reduces the risk for myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients: meta-analysis of seven long-term studies. European Heart Journal. 2004;25(1):10–6
Hartaigh O, Bosch JA, Carroll D, Hemming K, Pilz S, Loerbroks A, . . . Thomas GN. Evidence of a synergistic association between heart rate, inflammation, and cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography. European heart journal. Nov 23 2012.
He, J., Whelton, P. K., Appel, L. J., Charleston, J., and Klag, M. J. Long-term effects of weight loss and dietary sodium reduction on incidence of hypertension. Hypertension. 2000;35(2):544–9
Healy, M. FDA approves lorcaserin, first weight-loss drug since 1999. 2012; Available at: http://articles.latimes.com/2012/jun/27/science/la-sci-obesity-drug-20120628 [Accessed October 14, 2012].
Hebden, L., Chey, T., and Allman-Farinelli, M. Lifestyle intervention for preventing weight gain in young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs. Obes Rev. 2012;13(8):692–710
Heffner, K. L. Neuroendocrine effects of stress on immunity in the elderly: implications for inflammatory disease. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2011;31(1):95–108
Hiatt, W. R., Thomas, A., and Goldfine, A. B. What cost weight loss? Circulation. 2012;125(9):1171–7
Hill, A. M., Buckley, J. D., Murphy, K. J., and Howe, P. R. C. Combining fish-oil supplements with regular aerobic exercise improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(5):1267–74
Hill, J. O., Wyatt, H. R., and Peters, J. C. Energy balance and obesity. Circulation. 2012;126(1):126–32
Holmes C. Systemic inflammation and Alzheimer's Disease. Neuropathology and applied neurobiology. Oct 10 2012.
Hooper, L., Kroon, P. A., Rimm, E. B., et al. Flavonoids, flavonoid-rich foods, and cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;88(1):38–50
Houck L. DEA Proposes Controlling Lorcaserin in Schedule IV. 12/20/2012. Available at: http://www.fdalawblog.net/fda_law_blog_hyman_phelps/2012/12/dea-proposes-controlling-lorcaserin-in-schedule-iv.html Accessed 12/22/2012.
Hrboticky, N., Leiter, L. A., and Anderson, G. H. Effects of L-tryptophan on short term food intake in lean men. Nutrition Research. 1985;5(6):595–607
Hughes GM, Boyland EJ, Williams NJ, Mennen L, Scott C, Kirkham TC, . . . Halford JC. The effect of Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThin) on food intake, feeding behaviour and appetite: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lipids in health and disease. 2008;7:6.
Hunter GR, Weinsier RL, Gower BA, Wetzstein C. Age-related decrease in resting energy expenditure in sedentary white women: effects of regional differences in lean and fat mass. The American journal of clinical nutrition. Feb 2001;73(2):333-337.
Hursel, R., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34(4):659–69
Hursel, R., Viechtbauer, W., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(9):956–61
Ihler, G., and Chami-Stemmann, H. 7-oxo-DHEA and Raynaud's phenomenon. Med. Hypotheses. 2003;60(3):391–7
Ioannides-Demos, L. L., Piccenna, L., and McNeil, J. J. Pharmacotherapies for obesity: past, current, and future therapies. J Obes. 2011;2011:179674
Jackson KG, Poppitt SD, Minihane AM. Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular disease risk: Interrelationships between dietary, physiological and genetic determinants. Atherosclerosis. Jan 2012;220(1):22-33.
Jaffe T and Schwartz B. Leptin promotes motility and invasiveness in human colon cancer cells by activating multiple signal-transduction pathways. Int J Cancer. 2008;123(11):2543–56
Jéquier E. Pathways to obesity. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 2002;26 Suppl 2:S12–7
Jiang, L., Tian, W., Wang, Y., et al. Body mass index and susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Joint Bone Spine. 2012;79(3):291–7
Johnson, R., Bryant, S., and Huntley, A. L. Green tea and green tea catechin extracts: An overview of the clinical evidence. Maturitas. 2012 Dec;73(4):280-7
Juhel C, Armand M, Pafumi Y, Rosier C, Vandermander J, Lairon D. Green tea extract (AR25) inhibits lipolysis of triglycerides in gastric and duodenal medium in vitro. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. Jan 2000;11(1):45-51.
Kadowaki T, Yamauchi T, Waki H, Iwabu M, Okada-Iwabu M, Nakamura M. Adiponectin, adiponectin receptors, and epigenetic regulation of adipogenesis. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology. 2011;76:257-265.
Kalman DS, Colker CM, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 3-acetyl-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy overweight adults. Curr Ther Res. 2000;61(7):435-42.
Kant, A. K., and Graubard, B. I. Eating out in America, 1987-2000: trends and nutritional correlates. Prev Med. 2004;38(2):243–9
Kaufman, J. M., and Vermeulen, A. The decline of androgen levels in elderly men and its clinical and therapeutic implications. Endocr. Rev. 2005;26(6):833–76
King, N. A., Horner, K., Hills, A. P., et al. Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(5):315–22
Knutson KL, Spiegel K, Penev P, Van Cauter E. The metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation. Sleep medicine reviews. Jun 2007;11(3):163-178.
Kones, R. Rosuvastatin, inflammation, C-reactive protein, JUPITER, and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease--a perspective. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2010;4:383–413
Koo SI, Noh SK. Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry. Mar 2007;18(3):179-183.
Lam, D. D., Garfield, A. S., Marston, O. J., Shaw, J., and Heisler, L. K. Brain serotonin system in the coordination of food intake and body weight. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 2010;97(1):84–91
LANE, M., BLACK, A., and INGRAM, D. Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: implications for age-related disease risk. Journal of Anti-Aging …. 1998; 1(4): 315-326
Lau, F. C., Golakoti, T., Krishnaraju, A. V., and Sengupta, K. Efficacy and tolerability of Merastin™- A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. FASEB J. 2011;25:601Lefevre, M., Redman, L. M., Heilbronn, L. K., et al. Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203(1):206–13
Lee MS, Kim CT, Kim IH, Kim Y. Inhibitory effects of green tea catechin on the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytotherapy research : PTR. Aug 2009;23(8):1088-1091.
Lefevre M, Redman LM, Heilbronn LK, et al. Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203(1):206-13.
Li J-J, Huang CJ, Xie D. Anti-obesity effects of conjugated linoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. 2008;52(6):631-45.
Li, Q., Zhang, J., Zhou, Y., and Qiao, L. Obesity and gastric cancer. Front Biosci. 2012;17:2383–90
Liu, S., Choi, H. K., Ford, E., et al. A prospective study of dairy intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(7):1579–84
Lopez-Garcia, E., van Dam, R. M., Rajpathak, S., Willett, W. C., Manson, J. E., and Hu, F. B. Changes in caffeine intake and long-term weight change in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(3):674–80
Luo, X.-J., Peng, J., and Li, Y.-J. Recent advances in the study on capsaicinoids and capsinoids. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;650(1):1–7
Maarbjerg, S. J., Sylow, L., and Richter, E. A. Current understanding of increased insulin sensitivity after exercise - emerging candidates. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011;202(3):323–35
Maeda, H., Hosokawa, M., Sashima, T., Funayama, K., and Miyashita, K. Fucoxanthin from edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332(2):6–6
Marieb, E., and Hoehn, K. Human anatomy & physiology. 8th ed. © 2010. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.
Marik, P. E., and Varon, J. Omega-3 dietary supplements and the risk of cardiovascular events: a systematic review. Clin Cardiol. 2009;32(7):365–72
Mårin, P. Testosterone and regional fat distribution. Obes. Res. 1995;3 Suppl 4:609S–612S
Mayes, J. S., and Watson, G. H. Direct effects of sex steroid hormones on adipose tissues and obesity. Obes Rev. 2004;5(4):197–216
Mayo Clinic. Obesity; Treatments and Drugs. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs. Updated 8/3/2012. Accessed 12/31/2012.
McClendon KS, Riche DM, Uwaifo GI. Orlistat: current status in clinical therapeutics. Expert opinion on drug safety. Nov 2009;8(6):727-744.
Meyer, T. E., Kovács, S. J., Ehsani, A. A., Klein, S., Holloszy, J. O., and Fontana, L. Long-term caloric restriction ameliorates the decline in diastolic function in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47(2):398–402
Mijovic, T., How, J., and Payne, R. J. Obesity and thyroid cancer. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2011;3:555–64
Mohamed-Ali, V., Goodrick, S., Rawesh, A., et al. Subcutaneous adipose tissue releases interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(12):4196–200
Molavi, B., Rassouli, N., Bagwe, S., and Rasouli, N. A review of thiazolidinediones and metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes with focus on cardiovascular complications. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2007;3(6):967–73
Müssig, K., Remer, T., and Maser-Gluth, C. Brief review: glucocorticoid excretion in obesity. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2010;121(3-5):589–93
Myers MG Jr, Leibel RL, Seeley RJ, et al. Obesity and leptin resistance: distinguishing cause from effect. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21(11):643-51.
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC). Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes. Updated 12/6/11. Available at: http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/insulinresistance/#what. Accessed 1/4/2012.
Naumnik B, Mysliwiec M. Renal consequences of obesity. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research. Aug 2010;16(8):RA163-170.
Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, Mbofung CM, Oben JE. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation. Lipids in health and disease. 2009;8:7.
Ngondi, J. L., Oben, J. E., and Minka, S. R. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids Health Dis. 2005;4:12
Nguyen, N. T., Magno, C. P., Lane, K. T., Hinojosa, M. W., and Lane, J. S. Association of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome with obesity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 2008;207(6):928–34.
Nguyen, N., Champion, J. K., Ponce, J., et al. A review of unmet needs in obesity management. Obes Surg. 2012a;22(6):956–66
Nguyen, T., and Lau, D. C. W. The obesity epidemic and its impact on hypertension. Can J Cardiol. 2012b;28(3):326–33
Nielsen, S. J., and Popkin, B. M. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977-1998. JAMA. 2003;289(4):450–3
Norman, R. J., Flight, I. H., and Rees, M. C. Oestrogen and progestogen hormone replacement therapy for peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women: weight and body fat distribution. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001018
Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Blum K. Inhibition of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract (OB131) on adipogenesis as mediated via down regulation of the PPARgamma and leptin genes and up-regulation of the adiponectin gene. Lipids in health and disease. 2008a;7:44.
Oben, J. E., Ngondi, J. L., Momo, C. N., Agbor, G. A., and Sobgui, C. S. M. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis. 2008b;7:12
Onakpoya, I., Terry, R., and Ernst, E. The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011;2011:
Ortega Martinez de Victoria, E., Xu, X., Koska, J., et al. Macrophage content in subcutaneous adipose tissue: associations with adiposity, age, inflammatory markers, and whole-body insulin action in healthy Pima Indians. Diabetes. 2009;58(2):385–93
Osaki S, Kimura T, Sugimoto T, Hizukuri S, Iritani N. L-arabinose feeding prevents increases due to dietary sucrose in lipogenic enzymes and triacylglycerol levels in rats. J Nutr. 2001 Mar;131(3):796-9.
Owen CG, Whincup PH, Orfei L, Chou QA, Rudnicka AR, Wathern AK, . . . Cook DG. Is body mass index before middle age related to coronary heart disease risk in later life? Evidence from observational studies. International journal of obesity. Aug 2009;33(8):866-877.
Paolisso, G., Tagliamonte, M. R., Rizzo, M. R., and Giugliano, D. Advancing age and insulin resistance: new facts about an ancient history. Eur J Clin Invest. 1999;29(9):758–69
Paradis, M.-E., Couture, P., and Lamarche, B. A randomised crossover placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus) on postchallenge plasma glucose and insulin levels in men and women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2011;36(6):913–9
Phung, O. J., Baker, W. L., Matthews, L. J., Lanosa, M., Thorne, A., and Coleman, C. I. Effect of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on anthropometric measures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;91(1):73–81
Prentice, A. M., and Jebb, S. A. Beyond body mass index. Obes Rev. 2001;2(3):141–7
Preuss HG, Echard B, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats and pigs: 1. Acute studies. Int J Med Sci. 2007a;4(4):196-202.
Preuss HG, Echard B, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats 2. Subchronic studies. Int J Med Sci. 2007b;4(4):209-15.
Preuss, H. G. Bean amylase inhibitor and other carbohydrate absorption blockers: effects on diabesity and general health. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009;28(3):266–76
Rolls, B. J., Roe, L. S., and Meengs, J. S. Larger portion sizes lead to a sustained increase in energy intake over 2 days. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106(4):543–9
Rotondi, M., Magri, F., and Chiovato, L. Thyroid and obesity: not a one-way interaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(2):344–6
Rucker, D., Padwal, R., Li, S. K., Curioni, C., and Lau, D. C. W. Long term pharmacotherapy for obesity and overweight: updated meta-analysis. BMJ. 2007;335(7631):1194–9
Sahade V, Franca S, Badaro R, Fernando Adan L. Obesity and postprandial lipemia in adolescents: risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Endocrinologia y nutricion : organo de la Sociedad Espanola de Endocrinologia y Nutricion. Feb 2012;59(2):131-139.
Salpeter, S. R., Walsh, J. M. E., Ormiston, T. M., Greyber, E., Buckley, N. S., and Salpeter, E. E. Meta-analysis: effect of hormone-replacement therapy on components of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006;8(5):538–54
Sargent, B. J., and Moore, N. A. New central targets for the treatment of obesity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;68(6):852–60
Sassi F and Devaux M. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); Obesity Update 2012. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/health/healthpoliciesanddata/49716427.pdf . Accessed 1/8/2013.
Schnohr, P. Coronary heart disease risk factors ranked by importance for the individual and community. A 21 year follow-up of 12000 men and women from The Copenhagen City Heart Study. European Heart Journal. 2002;23(8):620–6
Schrager, M. A., Metter, E. J., Simonsick, E., et al. Sarcopenic obesity and inflammation in the InCHIANTI study. J Appl Physiol. 2007;102(3):919–25.
Selenscig D, Rossi A, Chicco A, Lombardo YB. Increased leptin storage with altered leptin secretion from adipocytes of rats with sucrose-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance: effect of dietary fish oil. Metabolism: clinical and experimental. Jun 2010;59(6):787-795.
Seri K, Sanai K, Matsuo N, Kawakubo K, Xue C, Inoue S. L-arabinose selectively inhibits intestinal sucrase in an uncompetitive manner and suppresses glycemic response after sucrose ingestion in animals. Metabolism. 1996 Nov;45(11):1368-74.
Shah NR, Braverman ER. Measuring adiposity in patients: the utility of body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, and leptin. PloS one. 2012;7(4):e33308.
Shao W, Yu Z, Chiang Y, Yang Y, Chai T, Foltz W, . . . Jin T. Curcumin prevents high fat diet induced insulin resistance and obesity via attenuating lipogenesis in liver and inflammatory pathway in adipocytes. PloS one. 2012;7(1):e28784.
Shehzad A, Iqbal W, Shehzad O, Lee YS. Adiponectin: regulation of its production and its role in human diseases. Hormones (Athens, Greece). Jan-Mar 2012;11(1):8-20.
Shen, C., Zhao, C.-Y., Zhang, R., and Qiao, L. Obesity-related hepatocellular carcinoma: roles of risk factors altered in obesity. Front Biosci. 2012;17:2356–70
Siasos G, Tousoulis D, Kollia C, Oikonomou E, Siasou Z, Stefanadis C, Papavassiliou AG. Adiponectin and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms and new therapeutic approaches. Current medicinal chemistry. 2012;19(8):1193-1209.
Singh T, Newman AB. Inflammatory markers in population studies of aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2011;10(3):319-29.
Singh, R., Akhtar, N., and Haqqi, T. M. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate: inflammation and arthritis. [corrected]. Life Sci. 2010;86(25-26):907–18
Smith TJ, Crombie A, Sanders LF, Sigrist LD, Bathalon GP, McGraw S, Young AJ. Efficacy of orlistat 60 mg on weight loss and body fat mass in US Army soldiers. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Apr 2012;112(4):533-540.
Sood, N., Baker, W. L., and Coleman, C. I. Effect of glucomannan on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations, body weight, and blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008;88(4):1167–75
Stehr, M. D., and Lengerke, von, T. Preventing weight gain through exercise and physical activity in the elderly: a systematic review. Maturitas. 2012;72(1):13–22
Stevens GA, Singh GM, Lu Y, Danaei G, Lin JK, Finucane MM, . . . Ezzati M. National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences. Population health metrics. Nov 20 2012;10(1):22.
Strojek K, Majkowska L, Zozulinska D, Gumprecht J, Krzymien J, Malecki M. [Postprandial glycemia--review of current pathophysiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects]. Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej. May-Jun 2007;117(5-6):252-259.
Sung, M.-K., Yeon, J.-Y., Park, S.-Y., Park, J. H. Y., and Choi, M.-S. Obesity-induced metabolic stresses in breast and colon cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1229:61–8.
Swinburn, B., Sacks, G., and Ravussin, E. Increased food energy supply is more than sufficient to explain the US epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009;90(6):1453–6
The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group 1997
Thom, E. The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people. J. Int. Med. Res. 2007;35(6):900–8
Thomas, J.-A., and Freedland, S. J. Obesity and prostate cancer: collateral damage in the battle of the bulge. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2011;3:594–605
Thorsdottir, I., Tomasson, H., Gunnarsdottir, I., et al. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31(10):1560–6
Torres, S. J., and Nowson, C. A. Relationship between stress, eating behavior, and obesity. Nutrition. 2007;23(11-12):887–94
Touvier M, Fezeu L, Ahluwalia N, Julia C, Charnaux N, Sutton A, . . . Czernichow S. Association between prediagnostic biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial function and cancer risk: a nested case-control study. American journal of epidemiology. Jan 1 2013;177(1):3-13.
Trayhurn, P., and Wood, I. S. Signalling role of adipose tissue: adipokines and inflammation in obesity. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2005;33(Pt 5):1078–81
Tsitouras PD, Gucciardo F, Salbe AD, Heward C, Harman SM. High omega-3 fat intake improves insulin sensitivity and reduces CRP and IL6, but does not affect other endocrine axes in healthy older adults. Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme. Mar 2008;40(3):199-205.
Vakil, N., van Zanten, S. V., Kahrilas, P., Dent, J., Jones, R., Global Consensus Group. The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus. In, p. 1900–20; quiz1943.
Van de Laar, F. A., Lucassen, P. L. B. J., Akkermans, R. P., Van de Lisdonk, E. H., Rutten, G. E. H. M., and Van Weel, C. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD003639
Vermeulen, A., Kaufman, J. M., Goemaere, S., and van Pottelberg, I. Estradiol in elderly men. Aging Male. 2002;5(2):98–102
Villareal DT, Holloszy JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. Nov 10 2004;292(18):2243-2248.
Vincent, H. K., Vincent, K. R., and Lamb, K. M. Obesity and mobility disability in the older adult. Obes Rev. 2010;11(8):568–79
Walford, R. L., Mock, D., Verdery, R., and MacCallum, T. Calorie restriction in biosphere 2: alterations in physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a 2-year period. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002;57(6):B211–24
Weisberg, S. P., McCann, D., Desai, M., Rosenbaum, M., Leibel, R. L., and Ferrante, A. W. Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest. 2003;112(12):1796–808
Weiss EP, Villareal DT, Fontana L, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement decreases insulin resistance and lowers inflammatory cytokines in aging humans. Aging (Albany NY). 2011;3(5):533-42.
Williams, G. Aromatase up-regulation, insulin and raised intracellular oestrogens in men, induce adiposity, metabolic syndrome and prostate disease, via aberrant ER-Î± and GPER signalling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;351(2):269–78
Wolfe, B. E., Metzger, E. D., and Stollar, C. The effects of dieting on plasma tryptophan concentration and food intake in healthy women. Physiol Behav. 1997;61(4):537–41
World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. 2000.
World Health Organization. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. 1998.
Wu, F. C. W., Tajar, A., Pye, S. R., et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European Male Aging Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(7):2737–45
Xiao D, Shi D, Yang D, Barthel B, Koch TH, Yan B. Carboxylesterase-2 Is a Highly Sensitive Target of the Antiobesity Agent Orlistat with Profound Implications in the Activation of Anticancer Prodrugs. Biochemical pharmacology. Dec 7 2012.
Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Waki H, et al. The fat-derived hormone adiponectin reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. Nature medicine. Aug 2001;7(8):941-946.
Yu Y, Hu SK, Yan H. [The study of insulin resistance and leptin resistance on the model of simplicity obesity rats by curcumin]. Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]. Nov 2008;42(11):818-822.
Zenk, J. L., Frestedt, J. L., and Kuskowski, M. A. HUM5007, a novel combination of thermogenic compounds, and 3-acetyl-7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone: each increases the resting metabolic rate of overweight adults. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18(9):629–34
Zhang, Y., Daquinag, A., Traktuev, D. O., et al. White Adipose Tissue Cells Are Recruited by Experimental Tumors and Promote Cancer Progression in Mouse Models. Cancer Res. 2009;69(12):5259–66